Varieties of Democracy

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Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) is a new approach to conceptualizing and measuring democracy. We provide a multidimensional and disaggregated dataset that reflects the complexity of the concept of democracy as a system of rule that goes beyond the simple presence of elections. The V-Dem project distinguishes between five high-level principles of democracy: electoral, liberal, participatory, deliberative, and egalitarian, and collects data to measure these principles.


Bernhard, Michael, Dong-Joon Jung, Eitan Tzelgov, Michael Coppedge, and Staffan I. Lindberg. "Making embedded knowledge transparent: How the V-Dem dataset opens new vistas in civil society research." Perspectives on Politics 15, no. 2 (2017): 342-360.

Blackwell, Matthew, and Adam N. Glynn. "How to make causal inferences with time-series cross-sectional data under selection on observables." American Political Science Review 112, no. 4 (2018): 1067-1082.

Coppedge, Michael, John Gerring, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Joshua Krusell, Juraj Medzihorsky, Josefine Pernes, Svend-Erik Skaaning et al. "The Methodology of “Varieties of Democracy”(V-Dem)." Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique 143, no. 1 (2019): 107-133.

Coppedge, Michael, John Gerring, David Altman, Michael Bernhard, Steven Fish, Allen Hicken, Matthew Kroenig et al. "Conceptualizing and measuring democracy: A new approach." Perspectives on Politics 9, no. 2 (2011): 247-267.

Coppedge, Michael, Staffan Lindberg, Svend-Erik Skaaning, and Jan Teorell. "Measuring high level democratic principles using the V-Dem data." International Political Science Review 37, no. 5 (2016): 580-593.

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