Trends in groundwater chemistry across Sweden during 1980−2020

SND-ID: 2022-226-1. Version: 1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5878/ms33-dh85

Citation

Creator/Principal investigator(s)

Marcus Klaus - Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Ecology and Management orcid

Research principal

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences - Department of Forest Ecology and Management rorId

Principal's reference number

SLU.seksko.2022.IÄ-7

SLU.seksko.2022.4.1-52

Description

This dataset contains medians, linear trends and change points in groundwater chemistry across Sweden during 1980-2020. Water chemical parameters include measured pH, alkalinity, concentrations of base cations and acid anions, dissolved oxygen, dissolved silica, total organic carbon, groundwater temperature, groundwater level, as well as dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide calculated using carbonate equilibrium equations based on pH, alkalinity and temperature. The statistics are calculated from a total of 5745 sampling occasions for 55 groundwater wells or springs that are part of the National Groundwater Chemistry Monitoring program run by the Geological Survey of Sweden. Included is also background information on the sampling locations. The aim with this data compilation is to evaluate effects of environmental changes on groundwater carbon cycling.

Given are medians and linear trends (Theil sen slopes, incl. p-value), change points in trends and numbers of observation of dissolved inorganic carbon, carbon dioxide, pH, alkalinity, total organic carbon, base cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na)

... Show more..
This dataset contains medians, linear trends and change points in groundwater chemistry across Sweden during 1980-2020. Water chemical parameters include measured pH, alkalinity, concentrations of base cations and acid anions, dissolved oxygen, dissolved silica, total organic carbon, groundwater temperature, groundwater level, as well as dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide calculated using carbonate equilibrium equations based on pH, alkalinity and temperature. The statistics are calculated from a total of 5745 sampling occasions for 55 groundwater wells or springs that are part of the National Groundwater Chemistry Monitoring program run by the Geological Survey of Sweden. Included is also background information on the sampling locations. The aim with this data compilation is to evaluate effects of environmental changes on groundwater carbon cycling.

Given are medians and linear trends (Theil sen slopes, incl. p-value), change points in trends and numbers of observation of dissolved inorganic carbon, carbon dioxide, pH, alkalinity, total organic carbon, base cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na), acid anions (Cl, SO4, NO3), ammonium, dissolved silica, dissolved oxygen, groundwater temperature and groundwater level. Medians and linear trends are also given for transformations (Pivot coordinates) of the above listed water chemical variables that account for the compositional nature of the data (Templ et al. 2011). Additionally, site specific information is given, including site name / ID, geographic coordinates, bedrock type, aquifer type and well depth. Dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide is calculated using carbonate equilibrium equations based on alkalinity, pH and water temperature, using the R package "phreeqc" (Charlton and Parkhurst 2011). Trends are calculated for the periods 1980-2000, 2000-2020 and 1980-2020 using the R package "rkt" (Marchetto 2021). Break points are calculated using the R package "segmented" (Muggeo 2008). Pivot coordinates are calculated using the R package ‘robCompositions’ (Templ et al. 2011). The raw data is openly available at Swedish Geological Survey (SGU 2022a,b). The data was downloaded on 2021-10-03.

References:
Charlton, S. R. & Parkhurst, D. . Modules based on the geochemical model PHREEQC for use in scripting and programming languages: Computers & Geosciences, v. 37, p. 1653-1663. (2011)
Marchetto, A. rkt: Mann-Kendall Test, Seasonal and Regional Kendall Tests. R package version 1.6. Available at: https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=rkt. (2021).
Muggeo, V. M. R. segmented: an R Package to Fit Regression Models with Broken-Line Relationships. R News, 8/1, 20-25. Available at: https://cran.r-project.org/doc/Rnews/. (2008).
SGU. Data från miljöövervakning av grundvatten, öppna data (Groundwater environmental monitoring data, in Swedish). Available at: https://www.sgu.se/produkter/geologiska-data/oppna-data/grundvatten-oppna-data/miljoovervakning-av-grundvatten/. (2022a).
SGU. Data om grundvattennivåer (Groundwater level data, in Swedish). Available at https://www.sgu.se/grundvatten/grundvattennivaer/ladda-ned-grundvattendata/. (2022b).
Matthias Templ, Karel Hron, P. F. robCompositions: an R-package for robust statistical analysis of compositional data. v. 2.3.1. in Compositional Data Analysis. Theory and Applications (eds. Pawlowsky-Glahn, V. & Buccianti, A.) 341–355 (John Wiley & Sons, 2011). Show less..

Data contains personal data

No

Language

Method and outcome

Time period(s) investigated

1980-01-01 – 2020-12-31

Variables

229

Data format / data structure

Data collection
  • Description of the mode of collection: National monitoring of groundwater chemistry, performed by the Geological Survey in Sweden. For details, see attached document "HVM_grundvattenkvalitet" (in Swedish only)
  • Time period(s) for data collection: 1980-01-01 – 2020-12-31
  • Instrument: Water chemical laboratory (SLU) (Technical instrument(s)) - Analysis at the Water chemical laboratory at the Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Laboratory methods are described in the documenting files.
Geographic coverage

Geographic spread

Geographic location: Sweden

Geographic description: The sites are located all across Sweden and cover a range of latitudes from 52−68°N.

Administrative information

Responsible department/unit

Department of Forest Ecology and Management

Funding

  • Funding agency: Geological Survey of Sweden rorId
  • Funding agency's reference number: 36–2788/2021
  • Project name on the application: The role of groundwater in the carbon cycle: long-term sink or overlooked legacy?
Topic and keywords

Research area

Earth and related environmental sciences (Standard för svensk indelning av forskningsämnen 2011)

Environmental sciences (Standard för svensk indelning av forskningsämnen 2011)

Geochemistry (Standard för svensk indelning av forskningsämnen 2011)

Physical geography (Standard för svensk indelning av forskningsämnen 2011)

Oceanography, hydrology and water resources (Standard för svensk indelning av forskningsämnen 2011)

Geoscientific information (INSPIRE topic categories)

Environment (INSPIRE topic categories)

Publications

Klaus, M., (2023). Decadal increase in groundwater inorganic carbon concentrations across Sweden. Communications Earth & Environment 4:221. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-023-00885-4
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-023-00885-4

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Published: 2023-05-16
Last updated: 2023-08-25