LNU81 - Swedish level of living survey 1981

SND-ID: ext0007-5.

Is part of collection at SND: REWHARD - RElations, Work and Health across the life-course - A Research Data infrastructure

Access to data via

Creator/Principal investigator(s)

Sten Johansson - Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research

Robert Erikson - Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research

Jan O. Jonsson - Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research

Michael Tåhlin - Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research

Research principal

Stockholm University - Swedish Institute for Social Research rorId

Description

The first level of living survey started within the framework of a governmental commission set up to study the prevalence and problems of low incomes. Their task was broadly defined, so beside a range of studies on income and income distributions they also commissioned a group of sociologists, headed by Sten Johansson, to study the distribution of welfare in Sweden more generally. The study by Johansson and his colleagues, undertaken in 1968, came to be known as the Level of Living Survey. From the beginning it was not the longitudinal aspect that was the novelty, but rather the fact that a wide spectrum of living conditions was studied with the survey method as such.

The division of level of living into different components, inspired by the work within the UN, resulted in the following list of components included in the Swedish Level of Living Surveys: Health and access to care; Employment and working conditions; Economic resources; Educational resources; Family and social integration; Housing and neighbourhood facilities; Security of life and property; Recreation and culture; Political reso

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The first level of living survey started within the framework of a governmental commission set up to study the prevalence and problems of low incomes. Their task was broadly defined, so beside a range of studies on income and income distributions they also commissioned a group of sociologists, headed by Sten Johansson, to study the distribution of welfare in Sweden more generally. The study by Johansson and his colleagues, undertaken in 1968, came to be known as the Level of Living Survey. From the beginning it was not the longitudinal aspect that was the novelty, but rather the fact that a wide spectrum of living conditions was studied with the survey method as such.

The division of level of living into different components, inspired by the work within the UN, resulted in the following list of components included in the Swedish Level of Living Surveys: Health and access to care; Employment and working conditions; Economic resources; Educational resources; Family and social integration; Housing and neighbourhood facilities; Security of life and property; Recreation and culture; Political resources.

The first survey was based on a 0.0001 random sample of the Swedish population aged 15 to 75 years of age. The interviews were made face-to-face according to a structured questionnaire covering all areas listed above. A large number of questions were asked dealing with a variety of aspects within each area.

The 1968 survey was to be repeated in 1974, and the decision was made to stick to the original sample but also include new cohorts of young people and immigrants arriving to Sweden in between the survey periods. Dropped from the sample was those above 75 years of age and those who had either emigrated or died. In 1981 the third Level of Living Survey was conducted with the same sample design and by and large with the same questionnaire. When Johansson left the project in 1982 Robert Erikson became the project leader. Erikson was project leader for the fourth level of living survey, conducted in 1991. During the project period Jan O. Jonsson and Johan Fritzell also were directors of the survey work. The 1991 survey was conducted with basically the same design, except for the fact that the youngest age bracket now became 18 instead of 15. The 1991 survey was enlarged in several respects. An obvious drawback of the panel design in the Level of Living Surveys is the relatively large time-span between each survey. Partly in order to fill in these missing years the 1991 questionnaire includes a work-life history section, and educational and family histories as well, thereby broadening the longitudinal aspects of the study. A second novelty was a specific survey to all individuals previously within the sample but excluded in the 1991 survey, due to the upper age limit. The sample included all persons older than 75 in 1991 who had previously been included in the Level of Living Survey sample and had been interviewed at least once. The interviews included most of the welfare components, with the exception of work related questions and education. Instead, more detailed data on health status and functional abilities was collected, partly by means of simple test performed during the interview. The third major extension was a separate work-place study consisting of interviews with managers at the work-places of all individuals who were employed at a work-place with at least ten employees. Show less..

Data contains personal data

No

Method and outcome

Unit of analysis

Population

1968: Individuals aged 15-75 years. - 1974: Individuals aged 15-75 years; 1) Individuals included in the 1968 survey, under the age of 76 and still living in Sweden, 2) A new addition of young individuals aged 15-20 years, 3) Individuals immigrating to

Sampling procedure

The first survey was based on a 0.0001 random sample of the Swedish population aged 15 to 75 years of age. The 1968 survey was to be repeated in 1974, and the decision was made to stick to the original sample but also include new cohorts of young people and immigrants arriving to Sweden in between the survey periods. Dropped from the sample was those above 75 years of age and those who had either emigrated or died. In 1981 the third Level of Living Survey was conducted with the same sample design. The 1991 survey was conducted with basically the same design, except for the fact that the youngest age bracket now became 18 instead of 15.

Time period(s) investigated

1981-04-02 – 1981-12-18

Variables

708

Number of individuals/objects

6985

Data format / data structure

Data collection
  • Mode of collection: Face-to-face interview
  • Time period(s) for data collection: 1981-04-02 – 1981-12-18
  • Data collector: Statistics Sweden
  • Source of the data: Population group
Geographic coverage

Geographic spread

Geographic location: Sweden

Administrative information

Responsible department/unit

Swedish Institute for Social Research

Topic and keywords

Research area

Housing (CESSDA Topic Classification)

Employment (CESSDA Topic Classification)

Working conditions (CESSDA Topic Classification)

Social sciences (Standard för svensk indelning av forskningsämnen 2011)

Sociology (Standard för svensk indelning av forskningsämnen 2011)

Social welfare systems/structures (CESSDA Topic Classification)

General health and well-being (CESSDA Topic Classification)

Medication and treatment (CESSDA Topic Classification)

Diet and nutrition (CESSDA Topic Classification)

Specific diseases, disorders and medical conditions (CESSDA Topic Classification)

Leisure, tourism and sport (CESSDA Topic Classification)

Social conditions and indicators (CESSDA Topic Classification)

Economic conditions and indicators (CESSDA Topic Classification)

Publications

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Institutet för social forskning (1984) Variabler och koder för LNU 81. Stockholm : Swedish institute for social research. ISBN: 91-7604-007-0.
ISBN: 91-7604-007-0

Institutet för social forskning (1981) Instruktions- och övningsformulär. Stockholm : Swedish Institute for Social Research.

Eriksson, R., Fritzell, J., & Jonsson, J. O. (1992) Questionnaire. Stockholm : Swedish institute for social research. ISBN: 91-7604-049-6.
ISBN: 91-7604-049-6

Erikson, R. (1993) Descriptions of inequality: The Swedish apporach to welfare research. In M.C. Nussbaum, & A. Sen, (eds.). The quality of life. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Erikson, R., & Uusitalo, H. (1987) The Scandinavian approach to welfare research. In R. Erikson, E.J. Hansen, S. Ringen, & H. Uusitalo, (eds.). The Scandinavian model: Welfare states and welfare research. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe.

Fritzell, J., & Lundberg, O. (eds.) (1994) Vardagens villkor. Levnadsförhållanden i Sverige under tre decennier. Stockholm: Brombergs förlag. ISBN: 9176086364.
ISBN: 9176086364

Johansson, S. (1973) The level of living survey: A presentation. Acta Sociologica 16:211-219.

Johansson, S. (1979) Mot en teori för social rapportering. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 99-0169631-3.
Libris
ISBN: 91-7604-001-1

Johansson, S. (1970) Om levnadsnivåundersökningen. Stockholm: Allmänna förlaget.
Libris
ISBN: 91-38-01416-5

Tåhlin, M. (1990) Politics, dynamics and individualism: The Swedish approach to level of living research. Social Indicators Research, 22.

Erikson, R., & Åberg, R. (red.) (1984) Välfärd i förändring. Levnadsvillkor i Sverige 1968-1981. Stockholm: Prisma. ISBN: 91-518-1657-1.
ISBN: 91-518-1657-1

Erikson, R., & Åberg, R. (eds.) (1987) Welfare in Transition. A Survey on Living Conditions in Sweden 1968-1981. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Vuksanovic, M. (1979) Kodbok för 1974 års levnadsnivåundersökning : dokumentation av ett dataregister för välfärdsforskning. Stockholm : Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 91-7604-005-4.
ISBN: 91-7604-005-4

Institutet för social forskning (1987) Bilder av välfärden : levnadsförhållanden i Sverige 1968-1981. Stockholm : Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 91-7540-047-2.
ISBN: 91-7540-047-2

Fritzell, J., & Lundberg, O. (1993) Ett förlorat eller förlovat årtionde? : välfärdsutvecklingen mellan 1981 och 1991. Stockholm : Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 91-7604-052-6.
ISBN: 91-7604-052-6

Bygren, M. (1995) Reliabiliteten i levnadsnivåundersökningen 1991. Stockholm : Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 91-7604-058-5.
ISBN: 91-7604-058-5

Institutet för social forskning (1992) Instruktions- och övningsformulär. Stockholm : Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 91-7604-048-8.
ISBN: 91-7604-048-8

Institutet för social forskning (1998) Kodbok för levnadsnivåundersökningen 1991. Stockholm : Swedish institute for social research.

Duncan, Greg J., Joshi, Heather & Mayer, Karl Ulrich (2005) An evaluation of the Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU): a report. Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet
Libris
ISBN: 91-7307-063-7

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