KOREAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY 1988
                              SSD 0392

                       Principal investigator
                  Korea Research Gallup Polls Ltd.

                          First SSD edition
                            November 1992

    

                 Swedish Social Science Data Service
                           Skanstorget 18
                          S-411 22 Göteborg

    

                  Go to variable list
                    ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF ASSISTANCE

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    Swedish Social Science Data Service should acknowledge that
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    adaption of this statement with the parantheses indicating
    items to be filled in appropriately or deleted by the
    individual user.

              The data (and tabulations) utilized in this
              (publication) were made available (in part) by
              the Swedish Social Science Data Service. The
              data for KOREAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY 1988
              were originally collected by Korea Research
              Gallup Polls Ltd. Neither the collector of
              the original data nor SSD bear any respons-
              ibility for the analyses or interpretations
              presented here.

    According to an agreement between Korea Research Gallup
    Polls Ltd. and the Swedish Social Science Data Service
    KOREAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY 1988 can be disseminated to
    and analysed by researchers on condition that the usage is
    for research purpose. The code of ethics for humanities and
    social sciences research established by the Swedish
    Humanities and Social Sciences Research Council, and
    published in HSFR-ETIK, must be adhered to wherever
    applicable.

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    investigator(s).

    

                              CONTENTS

                                                           Page

    INTRODUCTION

           Background                                         I

           Codebook information                              II

           SSD documentation                                III

    VARIABEL DESCRIPTION                                     IV

    CODEBOOK                                                  1

    
                                  I

                            INTRODUCTION

                             BACKGROUND

    The purpose of this research is focused at providing various
    information for political parties and candidates and helping
    them to make election campaign strategy before election.
    This research was executed by the Korea Research Gallup
    Polls Ltd. before the election day (April 26 1988) in the
    period between April 12 and 15. The valid sample size was
    2000. The sample was drawn by the 'Three-stage
    stratification random sampling' method. The number of
    population of six large cities such as Seoul, Pusan, Taegu,
    Kwangju, Inchon, and Taejon, and of nine provinces such as
    Kyongki, Kangwon, Choongbuk, Choongnam, Kyongbuk, Kyongnam,
    Chonbuk, Chonnam, and Cheju, was allocated proportionally to
    sample size, and the population number of 'Ku/Dong' in
    larger cities, and 'Shi/Dong' or 'Kun/Eop' in medium- and
    small cities, was also considered before random sampling.
    Field work was done by the following principles: 'Tong/Ban'
    in larger cities and 'Ri' in farming areas were picked up by
    random after consideration of the number of inhabitants of
    the interview districts. All interviews were carried out by
    face-to-face interviews by visiting respondents' home.

    Administrative classification in South Korea

    Special City/Autonomy Cities/Provinces

    In Korea, there are one special city ('Tukbyolshi'), five
    autonomy cities ('Jikhalshi'), and nine provinces ('DO').
    The administrative classification is mainly based on the
    scale of regional inhabitants, but some considerations like
    its regional status and importance were also esteemed. For
    example, the name of 'Tykbyolshi' is used for the capital
    city, Seoul, and 'Jikhalshi' for the cities that have more
    than approximately 600 000 inhabitants. When an ordinary
    city was advanced to 'Jikhalshi', the motto of 'Fair and
    balanced development of the nation' was also considered. The
    heads of regional- and local government, however, are still
    appointed by the central government.

    

    'Tykbyolshi' (special city): Seoul
    'Jikhalshi' (autonomy city): Pusan, Taegu, Kwangju, Inchon,
    Daejong
    'Do' (province): Kyongki-Do (abbr. Kyongki),
    Choong-Chong-Buk-Do (Choongbuk), Choong-Chong-Nam-Do
    (Choongnam), Kyong-Sang-Buk-Do (Kyongbuk), Kyong-Sang-Nam-Do
    (Kyongnam), Cholla-Buk-Do (Chonbuk), Cholla-Nam-Do
    (Chonnam), Kwangwon-Do (Kangwon), Cheju-Do (Cheju).

    Other administrative classifications

    'Tukbyolshi' and 'Jikhalshi' are composed of small districts
    which are called 'Ku'. In turn, the districts are divided
    into small resident and commercial areas which are called
    'Dong'. Followingly, 'Dong' is partitioned on the basis of
    block or street which is called 'Tong'. In the same way,
    'Tong' is partitioned into 'Ban'. All the names mentioned
    are written in a row (for example, 20 Tong 1 Ban, Shillim
    5-Dong, Kwanak-Ku, Seoul-Tukbyolshi, 151-015, Korea).

    Similarly, the nine provinces have their partitioned
    districts, areas, and blocks. There are two different
    combinations: 1) Ban-Tong-Dong-(Ku)-Shi-Do and 2)
    Ri-Myon/Eop-Kun-Do. The former is frequently used in the
    small or medium sized cities which are more urbanized,
    whereas the latter in the traditional farming areas.
    Accordingly, 'Eop/Myon' is representing small farming area,
    while small/medium cities, which are called 'Shi', mean more
    developed areas.

    
    Party politics in Korea

    At present, there are four major political parties in Korea:
    The Democratic Justice Party (DJP: government party), the
    Reunification Democratic Party (RDP: opposition party), the
    Party for Peace and Democracy (PPD), and the New Democratic
    Republican Party (NDRP). The government party, DJP, is led
    by president Roh Te-Woo, RDP by Kim Young-Sam, PPD by Kim
    Dae-Jung, and NDRP by Kim Jong-Pil. Ideologically, DJP can
    be placed on the right-hand side on the left-right
    continuum, while PPD is somewhat leaning toward left side,
    so-called Korean Social Democrat. The rest of the parties,
    i.e., RDP and NRDP, is quite difficult to place on the
    left-right continuum, partly because they don't have any
    ideological color, and partly because, since the Korean War
    (1950-1953), communism and socialism, were completely
    forbidden on the Korean political scene. Any party has never
    launched successfully a communist party in Korean party
    politics, because of harsh suppression of the authoritarian
    governments since then. At any rate, after considering party
    programs and policy position, we can locate RDP on the right
    side of the axis, and NDRP between RDP and DJP. As pointed,
    it is quite difficult to locate the political parties on the
    Western-style left-right continuum in Korea.

    
                                 II

                        CODEBOOK INFORMATION

    The example below is a reproduction of information appearing
    in a machine-readable codebook for a typical variable. The
    numbers in brackets do not appear but are references to the
    descriptions which follow this example.

    ............................................................

    (1) VAR 26   (2) ASSESSMENT OF GOVT     17    (3) MD=9
        REF 26   (4) LOC 40  WIDTH 1              (5) NUMERIC

     (6) Q.17  How do you evaluate the present government
               led by the president Roh Tae Woo? Do you think
               that the government takes care of politics well
               or not?

     (7) ......................

        (8)  (9)  (10)
       524    1.   Does well
       203    3.   So & so
       107    5.   Does not well
      1164    8.   DK/Difficult to say

         2    9.   MD

    ............................................................

    (1) Variabel- and reference number. Usually identical.
    Should the data be subset or rearranged by an OSIRIS
    program, the variable numbers would change to reflect the
    order of the new dataset, while the reference number would
    remain unchanged to reflect the variable number in the
    codebook describing the archived dataset.

    (2) Variable name. An abbreviation of the question at issue
    (maximum of 24 characters).

    (3) Missing data. Indicates the code values of missing data.

    (4) Position. Indicates the starting location and width of
    this variable.

    (5) Indicates if data is numeric or alphabetic.

    

    (6) The full text (question) supplied by the investigator to
    describe the variable.

    (7) Additional comments or explanations appended to the
    variable description.

    (8) Frequency of occurence of each code value.

    (9) Code values occuring in the data.

    (10) Textual definitions of the codes.

    
                                 III

                          SSD DOCUMENTATION

    The documentation has been processed using a computer-based
    documentation system made available for the SSD from the
    Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social
    Research (ICPSR) at the University of Michigan. The system
    is called Guided Interactive Dataset Organization (GIDO).

    




Variable list


1 SSD Study Number 0392 2 SSD Edition Number 1 3 SSD Part Number 001 4 ID Number 5 Area 6 Size of city 7 Gender 8 Age PERCEPTION OF POLITICS 9 Political interest 10 Political change 11 National problem 12 Regional problem REMEMBRANCE OF CANDIDATE'S PARTY 13 Candidate running for election, 1 14 Candidate running for election, 2 15 Candidate running for election, 3 16 Candidate running for election, 4 EVALUATION OF CANDIDATE 17 Candidate possible to be elected 18 Wishing candidate to be elected 19 Prefering candidate 20 Reason for candidate choice 21 Most important item in candidate selection 22 Party orientation INFORMATION SOURCE AND ISSUES 23 Information source 24 Most important campaign issue 25 Candidate benefited from campaign issue ASSESSMENT OF THE EXECUTIVES 26 Assessment of government 27 Positive assessment of government 28 Negative assessment of government 29 President Roh Tae Woo PARTY PREFERENCE 30 Most liked party 31 Second best party PUBLIC COMMITMENT 32 Public commitment 33 Commitment party 34 Vote National Assembly Election 1985 BACKGROUND 35 Occupation 36 Religion 37 Grandfather's hometown 38 Education 39 Monthly income ECONOMIC NEWSPAPERS 40 Subscription economic newspapers 41 Economic daily newspaper at work 42 Read economic newspaper during recent month 43 Korea Economics or Daily Economic News

VAR 1  SSD STUDY NUMBER 0392                       Loc 1  width 4


SSD Study Number 0392


VAR 2 SSD EDITION NUMBER 1 Loc 5 width 1 SSD Edition Number The number identifying the release edition of this dataset. 1. November 1992
VAR 3 SSD PART NUMBER 001 Loc 6 width 3 SSD Part Number The number identifying this part of a 1-part study.
VAR 4 ID NUMBER Loc 9 width 4 ID Number
VAR 5 AREA Loc 13 width 2 Area 494 01. Seoul 179 02. Pusan 106 03. Taegu 72 04. Inchon 42 05. Kwangju 246 06. Kyongki 84 07. Kangwon 68 08. Choongbuk 140 09. Choongnam 104 10. Chonbuk 132 11. Chonnam 156 12. Kyongbuk 177 13. Kyongnam
VAR 6 SIZE OF CITY Loc 15 width 1 Size of city Eop/Myon: Administrative classification for small country side area. "Eop" is larger than "Myon" in population. See details in the introduction. 893 1. Large city 470 2. Medium/small city 207 3. Eop 430 4. Myon
VAR 7 GENDER Loc 16 width 1 MD=9 Gender 1000 1. Man 999 2. Woman 1 9. MD
VAR 8 AGE Loc 17 width 2 Age 20. 20 years . . 84. 84 years Kod: 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Frek: 27 38 39 46 56 66 58 60 62 68 99 68 62 68 Kod: 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Frek: 61 52 60 38 40 40 60 57 37 39 40 40 35 40 Kod: 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 Frek: 35 27 41 34 33 29 33 23 21 28 23 32 26 12 Kod: 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 Frek: 18 15 12 10 16 11 11 8 10 5 5 2 5 5 Kod: 76 77 78 80 81 84 Frek: 3 5 1 1 2 2
VAR 9 POLITICAL INTEREST 3 Loc 19 width 1 MD=9 Q.3. How much are you interested in politics? 208 1. Very interested 447 2. Somewhat interested 820 3. Neither interested nor uninterested 430 4. Somewhat uninterested 94 5. Very uninterested 1 9. MD
VAR 10 POLITICAL CHANGE 4 Loc 20 width 1 MD=9 Q.4. How do you feel about Korean politics? Do you think that it is desirable or not desirable for politics to be changed drastically? 1109 1. Drastic change is desirable 675 5. Drastic change is not desirable 206 8. DK 10 9. MD
VAR 11 NATIONAL PROBLEM 5 Loc 21 width 2 MD=99 Q.5. What do you think the most serious problem is which has to be solved immediately in Korea? 108 01. Democratization 223 02. Political instability 205 03. Instability in price 92 04. Social instability 9 05. Reward for the Victims of Kwangju Democratic Movement 9 06. National harmony 1 07. Listening to public opinion 26 08. Anti-sentiment between regions 12 11. Eradication of military rule 9 12. Clean and fair politics 7 13. Successful arrangement of 1988 Olympics 91 14. Dissolving the gap between the rich and the poor 41 15. Execution of policies for the alienated in society 5 16. Civil security and comfort 10 17. Launching the minimun wage system 8 18. Execution of policies for the low-waged workers 11 19. Launching exclusive welfare policy 12 20. Paying off of national debt 7 22. Guarantee of fundamental rights 24 23. Political reform 3 24. Social reform 2 26. Listening to students' opinion 75 27. Dissolving the student demonstration 6 28. Clearing off of irrationalities in society 71 29. Sweeping off of political corruption 2 30. Fair personnel administration 22 31. Sweeping off of authoritarianism 10 32. Trustworthyness of government 22 33. Freedom of press 1 38. National security/anti-communism 2 39. Open-door policy for East European countries 20 40. Housing problems 6 41. Traffic jam/lack of parking lot 10 42. Educational problems 14 43. Inconsistency in labor market policy 111 44. Dissolving urban-rural disparity 8 45. Cutting down of tax burden 4 46. Strict and fair law management 1 47. Armored police on streets 3 50. Revision of election law 2 51. Balanced regional development 1 52. Execution of '6.29 Declaration' of the president 63 53. Unification 44 54. Economic instability 10 56. Uncomfortness of social life 1 57. Recovering of uniform wearing of the middle- and high school students 26 58. Price instability in agricultural and dairy products 31 60. Writing off farmers' debts 6 63. Launching of medical care for farmers 19 65. Juvenile delinquency 3 66. Import opening pressure 8 67. Campaign fraud in National Assembly election 4 68. Population problem 19 69. Formalism/bad ritual tradition 2 70. Environmental pollution 112 71. Labor-management disputes 11 72. Merge among opposition parties 1 73. Regulation against illegal investment of real estate 2 74. Monopoly of conglomerated enterprises ("Chaebol") 4 76. Low quality of welfare for the elders 1 77. Currency instability 12 78. Resolving of Semaul scandal 1 80. Health and sanitary 27 97. Nothing 5 98. Others 282 99. MD
VAR 12 REGIONAL PROBLEM 6 Loc 23 width 2 MD=99 Q.6. In regional politics, what do you think is the most serious problem which has to be solved immediately? 144 01. Traffic jam 135 02. Road pavement 77 03. Road building 43 04. Public transportation 12 05. More bus lines 15 06. More parking lots 12 07. More traffic lights 10 08. Expansion of subway lines/connection stations 1 09. Building more railroad stations 18 11. Want of public/cultural facilities 2 12. More facilities for the elders 4 13. More outing places for the children 1 14. More sports facilities 1 15. More libraries 9 17. More shopping center/large markets 1 18. Moving town-block offices to suburbun area 7 19. More bridges/overpasses 2 20. Supplying natural gas 17 21. Instability in social life 8 22. Jobless problems 17 23. Excessive tax burden 19 24. High cost of housing 10 25. Instability in price 3 26. Launching comprehensive health care system 9 27. Price instability in real estate market 11 28. Politics for the populace 45 31. Regional development 17 32. More factories 2 34. Development of regional economy 4 35. Driving regional development policy 4 36. Driving regional development policy 8 37. Removing regulation against Green Belt Zone development 15 38. Unfair compensation in rebulding district 2 39. Development in underdeveloped area 2 40. Reward for the victims of the Kwangju Democratic Movement 16 41. Rural problmes/lack of working force 13 42. Writing-off of famers' debts 12 43. Low income of rural population 5 44. Launching special funds for development of rural areas 7 45. Lining up/adjustment of farmlands 1 46. Cutting down of prices of agricultural medicines and machinery 3 47. More investment for agricultural automation 20 48. Price instability in agricultural products 3 49. Reorganizing of farmers' co-operative association 20 51. Environmental problems 51 52. Menace/noise problems 8 53. Amusement quarters close to residential districts 9 54. Sanitary 3 55. Street environment: sweeping, sanitary, etc. 3 56. Environmental problems in factory/industry area 12 58. Improvment of old/poor housing 8 59. Covering ditch 1 60. Frequent interruption of electric power 5 61. Sanitary, public health 21 62. More sewerage 67 63. More water supplying facilities 11 64. More refuse treatment facilities 7 65. More hospitalities 1 71. Civil security 8 72. More preventive measures against criminal 18 73. Cleaning off of gangsters 15 74. Social order 26 75. More street lamps 13 81. Higher quality of education 7 83. More schools 10 84. Bad school environment 1 88. Bad tradition based on formalism/ritualism 1 89. Retarded launch of regional government system 4 90. Corruption of public servants 2 91. Frequent street demonstrations 11 92. Dissolving disparity between the rich and the poor 10 93. Low level of government trustworthyness 1 94. Juvenile delinquency 5 96. Dissolving regional anti-sentiments 7 98. Others 867 99. MD
VAR 13 PARTY 1:ST CANDIDATE 7 Loc 25 width 1 MD=9 Q.7. Do you remember the candidates who are running for the National Assembly election? Which party do they represent? Q.7(1). Party 1:st Candidate 1356 1. The Democratic Justice Party (DJP) 190 2. The Reunification Democratic Party (RDP) 144 3. The Party for Peace and Democracy (PPD) 93 4. The New Democratic Republican Party (NDRP) 41 5. Others 30 6. Independents 146 9. MD
VAR 14 PARTY 2:ND CANDIDATE 7 Loc 26 width 1 MD=9 Q.7(2). Party 2:nd Candidate <See Q.7 for complete question text> 221 1. The Democratic Justice Party (DJP) 718 2. The Reunification Democratic Party (RDP) 305 3. The Party for Peace and Democracy (PPD) 251 4. The New Democratic Republican Party (NDRP) 72 5. Others 71 6. Independents 362 9. MD
VAR 15 PARTY 3:RD CANDIDATE 7 Loc 27 width 1 MD=9 Q.7(3). Party 3:rd Candidate <See Q.7 for complete question text> 104 1. The Democratic Justice Party (DJP) 174 2. The Reunification Democratic Party (RDP) 247 3. The Party for Peace and Democracy (PPD) 323 4. The New Democratic Republican Party (NDRP) 135 5. Others 93 6. Independents 924 9. MD
VAR 16 PARTY 4:TH CANDIDATE 7 Loc 28 width 1 MD=9 Q.7(4). Party 4:th Candidate <See Q.7 for complete question text> 15 1. The Democratic Justice Party (DJP) 40 2. The Reunification Democratic Party (RDP) 45 3. The Party for Peace and Democracy (PPD) 136 4. The New Democratic Republican Party (NDRP) 145 5. Others 109 6. Independents 1510 9. MD
VAR 17 POSSIBL.TO BE ELECTED 8 Loc 29 width 1 MD=9 Q.8. How do you anticipate about which candidate has the highest possibility to be elected? Which party is the candidate running for? 697 1. The Democratic Justice Party (DJP) 251 2. The Reunification Democratic Party (RDP) 198 3. The Party for Peace and Democracy (PPD) 120 4. The New Democratic Republican Party (NDRP) 18 5. Others 26 6. Independents 690 9. MD
VAR 18 WISHING CANDIDATE 9 Loc 30 width 1 MD=9 Q.9. Regardless of candidates' possibility to be elected, which candidate are you wishing to be elected in your district? Which party is the candidate running for? 469 1. The Democratic Justice Party (DJP) 284 2. The Reunification Democratic Party (RDP) 258 3. The Party for Peace and Democracy (PPD) 152 4. The New Democratic Republican Party (NDRP) 28 5. Others 31 6. Independents 778 9. MD
VAR 19 PREFERING CANDIDATE 10 Loc 31 width 1 MD=0 Q.10. (NO PARTY IN Q.9:) Is there any candidate you prefer? Which party is the candidate running for? 56 1. The Democratic Justice Party (DJP) 52 2. The Reunification Democratic Party (RDP) 47 3. The Party for Peace and Democracy (PPD) 36 4. The New Democratic Republican Party (NDRP) 9 5. Others 6 6. Independents 1794 0. INAP
VAR 20 REASON FOR CHOICE 11 Loc 32 width 2 MD=99 Q.11. Is there any reason for your choice of the candidate? NOTE: CODE SCHEME MISSING FOR THIS QUESTION. 01. . . 96. 689 99. MD Kod: 1 4 11 12 13 14 15 16 21 22 23 Frek: 160 1 21 6 88 22 21 1 26 42 44 Kod: 24 25 26 31 32 33 41 42 45 46 50 Frek: 38 126 154 53 6 3 55 7 29 9 1 Kod: 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 61 62 Frek: 40 48 20 8 4 5 20 40 1 7 6 Kod: 71 72 73 81 82 83 85 86 91 92 93 Frek: 64 8 17 2 3 9 1 3 52 20 2 Kod: 94 95 96 99 Frek: 7 3 7 690
VAR 21 MOST IMPORTANT ITEM 12 Loc 34 width 1 MD=9 Q.12. Which item is regarded as the most important thing when you select a candidate? 413 1. Candidate's party 673 2. Candidate's capacity 759 3. Degree of contribution of the candidate for regional development 73 4. Public commitment of the candidate 21 5. Others 61 9. MD
VAR 22 PARTY ORIENTATION 13 Loc 35 width 1 MD=9 Q.13. People sometimes classfiy the political parties into two groups, i.e. government party on the one hand, opposition parties on the other. To which group do you stand closer, to the government party or to one of the opposition parties? 392 1. To the government party 1030 5. To the oppostion parties 520 8. DK/Difficult to say 58 9. MD
VAR 23 INFORMATION SOURCE 14 Loc 36 width 1 MD=9 Q.14. There are many different sources from which we may get information on politics and election campaign. Which is the most frequently used source in your case? 661 1. Newspapers 1122 2. TV 35 3. Radio 16 4. Magazines 74 5. Conversation/debates with neighbors, friends, fellow workers, etc. 65 6. No difference among the above named 27 9. MD
VAR 24 CAMPAIGN ISSUES 15 Loc 37 width 2 MD=99 Q.15. There are many campaign issues which are currently presented and discussed by the candidates and parties. Which issue do you think is most important, or in which issue are you most interested? Write just one item. 41 01. Regional development 37 02. Merge of opposition parties 2 03. Better economy 2 04. Balanced distribution 70 05. Digging out the Fifth Republic's scandals 219 06. Dissolving Semaul sandal 26 07. Execution of public commitments 2 08. More investment for better education 7 09. More investment for agriculture 72 10. Sparing money during election campaign period 23 11. Clean moral of politicians 1 12. Guarantee of fundamental rights 95 13. Slander among candidates 28 14. Reward for the victims of Kwangju Democratic Movement 18 16. Fair condidate nomination in parties 7 17. Dissolving regional anti-sentiments 4 18. Politics for the populace 1 19. Keeping price down 14 20. Democratization 1 21. Welfare politics 50 22. Election rigging 40 23. Campaign fraud 20 24. Political stability 13 25. Cleaning off authoritarianism 3 27. Student demonstration 2 29. Open-door pressure 9 30. Labor-management disputes 10 31. Government policy implementation 1 33. Launch of complete local government system 1 34. Government corruption 1 98. Others 1180 99. MD
VAR 25 BENEFITED CANDIDATE 16 Loc 39 width 1 MD=0 Q.16. Which party's candidate do you think is more benefited from the issue you selected in the previous question? 134 1. Democratic Justice Party (DJP) 142 2. Reunification Democratic Party (RDP) 119 3. Party for Peace and Democracy (PPD) 40 4. New Democratic Republican Party (NDRP) 10 5. Others 7 6. Independents 130 7. No difference among the parties 191 8. No party 1227 0. INAP
VAR 26 ASSESSMENT OF GOVT 17 Loc 40 width 1 MD=9 Q.17. How do you evaluate the present government led by the president Roh Tae Woo? Do you think that the government takes care of politics well or not? 524 1. Does well 203 3. So & so 107 5. Does not well 1164 8. DK/Difficult to say 2 9. MD
VAR 27 POS GOVT ASSESSMENT 18 Loc 41 width 2 MD=99 Q.18. Can you name any concrete reason for your choice in the previous question? Q.18(1). Positive assessment: 14 01. Listening to public opinion 20 02. Policies for the common 50 03. Contribution to democratization 31 04. Elimination of authoritarianism 120 05. Trying to keep the campaign commitments 3 06. Opening the Blue House (President House) 15 07. High level of trustworthyness 8 08. Feeling of comfort 7 10. Social stability 25 11. Politica stability 10 12. Trying to dissolve the Kwangju Democratic Movement problems 2 13. Policies against student demonstration 7 14. Freedom of the press 8 15. Policies for realization of egalitarianism 39 16. Populace politics 5 17. Price stability 1 19. Economic policy 8 20. Fair and clean politics 2 23. Dissolving regional anti-sentiments 4 24. Protection policy for agriculture 2 25. Elimination of kin/family involvement in politics 4 26. National harmony 26 27. Policy against illegal accumulation of wealth 26 28. Pure image 4 31. Unveiling of properties of the higher officials 33 50. Without any of plausible reasons 22 60. All of the above 1 88. DK 1503 99. MD
VAR 28 NEG GOVT ASSESSMENT 18 Loc 43 width 2 MD=99 Q.18(2). Negative assessment: <See Q.18 for complete question text> 1 01. Listening to public opinion 3 03. Trying for democratization 1 15. Policies for realization of egalitarianism 1 50. Without any of plausible reasons 12 51. Low level of trustworthyness 3 52. Taking military officials into government posts 8 53. Formalism, political show, etc. 6 54. Price instability 1 55. Retrogression in democratization 5 57. Unfair personnel arrangement 1 58. Dictatorship 2 59. Ignoring public opinions 4 60. Breaking off of the campaign public commitment 1 61. Higher tax burden 3 62. Failure in rural/agricultural policies 1 64. High cost of medical care 5 65. Policies against the populace 2 66. Unsettled Kwangju problems 1 68. Non-execution of political commitment 5 70. Authoritarianism 1 71. Disparity between the haves and the have-nots 22 74. Parallel of the Fifth Republics/No difference between 5:th and 6:th Republics 12 75. Corruption of the excutives 3 76. Social disorder 2 90. All of the above 1894 99. MD
VAR 29 ASSESSM. OF PRESIDENT 19 Loc 45 width 1 MD=9 Q.19. How do you evaluate the president Roh Tae Woo? Do you think that he currently performs his presidency better or worse in comparison to your anticipation before his tenure of office? 749 1. Does better 873 3. No difference 129 5. Does worse 249 9. MD
VAR 30 MOST LIKED PARTY 20 Loc 46 width 1 MD=9 Q.20. We have four political parties in the National Assembly: the Democratic Justice Party (DJP), the Reunification Party (RDP), the Party for Peace and Democracy (PPD), and the New Democratice Republican Party (NDRP). Which party do you like most? 354 1. The Democratic Justice Party (DJP) 309 2. The Reunification Democratic Party (RDP) 304 3. The Party for Peace and Democracy (PPD) 206 4. The New Democratic Republican Party (NDRP) 35 5. Others 18 6. Independents 608 7. No difference 163 8. No party 3 9. MD
VAR 31 SECOND BEST PARTY 21 Loc 47 width 1 MD=9 Q.21. Which party is your second prefering party? 205 1. The Democratic Justice Party (DJP) 219 2. The Reunification Democratic Party (RDP) 107 3. The Party for Peace and Democracy (PPD) 203 4. The New Democratic Republican Party (NDRP) 26 5. Others 16 6. Independents 328 7. No difference 115 8. No party 781 9. MD
VAR 32 PUBLIC COMMITMENT 22 Loc 48 width 2 MD=99 Q.22. There are many public commitments presented by the candidates and political parties during election campaign. Which item are you most interested in? Name just one item. 10 01. Democratization 86 02. Regional development 3 03. National harmony 1 04. Merge of opposition parties 9 05. Development in rural area 2 06. Removing the Green Belt Zone 3 07. Dignity 5 08. Dissolving disparity between the rich and the poor 5 09. Investment in water supplying/sewarage 18 10. Politics for the populace 1 11. Better public service for the region 6 12. Fresh politics. Morally clean politicians. 7 14. Welfare for the workers 1 15. Inspection of government by the National Assembly 4 16. More subway lines 9 18. More paved roads 2 19. More investment in culture 3 20. Social stability 3 21. Better economy/public service 2 22. More leisure facilities, parks, etc. 2 23. More national reservoir 2 25. More industrial/agricultural complex 3 26. Dissolving regional anti-sentiments 12 27. Sweeping out government corruption 4 28. Dissolving the Kwangju problems 2 29. More housing 1 31. Launching the minimum wage system 3 32. Dissolving Semaul scandal 1 35. Politics for the populace 7 37. Clean politics 3 38. Control over the big government party 2 39. Let's work harder 3 40. More investment for education 1 41. Reward-punishment based on one's achievement 2 42. Kwangju mentality 5 43. Digging out the Fifth Republic's scandals 2 44. Do not trust political parties. Do trust me. 1 45. More investment for the handicapped 1 46. Open-door policies for the communist countries 5 47. Against the military dictatorship 1 48. Abolishment of the Security Law 6 49. More investment and development of the west coasts 3 50. More schools 1 51. Unveiling properties of higher officials 4 52. Moving the province hall 1 53. More railroad/station 1 54. Lining-up/systematic readjustment of farmlands 2 55. More traffic lights 1 56. Launch of regional government system 1 72. Others 1737 99. MD
VAR 33 COMMITMENT PARTY 22 Loc 50 width 1 MD=0 Q.22(1). The item you named above. From which party was the candidate who presented the item nominated? <See Q.22 for complete question text> 104 1. The Democratic Justice Party (DJP) 29 2. The Reunification Democratic Party (RDP) 48 3. The Party for Peace and Democracy (PPD) 24 4. The New Democratic Republican Party (NDRP) 10 5. Others/independents 4 8. DK 1781 0. INAP
VAR 34 1985 VOTE 23 Loc 51 width 1 MD=9 Q.23. Which party did you vote for in the recent National Assembly election in 1985? 225 1. Abstained 689 2. The government party 817 3. One of the opposition parties 150 4. Can't say 119 9. MD
VAR 35 OCCUPATION B:1 Loc 52 width 1 MD=9 Q.B:1. Occupation 260 1. Farm-, Fishery, and Forestry Workers 199 2. Own-account workers/Self-employed 239 3. Industry-, non-industry workers/Salesman 247 4. Managers/Office workers/Professionals 777 5. Housewife 93 6. Student 183 7. Jobless/Others 2 9. MD
VAR 36 RELIGION B:2 Loc 53 width 1 MD=9 Q.B:2. Religion 859 1. No religion 546 2. Buddhist 413 3. Protestant 153 4. Catholic 10 5. Others 19 9. MD
VAR 37 GRANDFA:S HOMETOWN B:3 Loc 54 width 1 MD=9 Q.B:3. Grandfather's hometown 50 1. Seoul 171 2. Kyongki 389 3. Kyongbuk 312 4. Kyongnam 459 5. Choola (Chollabuk-Do + Chollanam-Do) 395 6. Choongchong (Choongchongbuk-Do + Choongchongnam-Do) 95 7. Others 129 9. MD
VAR 38 EDUCATION B:4 Loc 55 width 1 MD=9 Q.B:4. Education 611 1. Under elementary school( - 6 years) 375 2. Middle school (7-9 years) 663 3. High school (10-12 years) 91 4. Student (13 - years) 254 5. Over university (16 - years) 6 9. MD
VAR 39 MONTHLY INCOME B:5 Loc 56 width 3 MD=999 Q.B:5. Monthly income (Korea Won: * 10.000) 1 SEK = ca. 100 Won 002. 20 000 Won . . 804. 8 040 000 Won 64 999. MD Kod: 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 12 13 15 Frek: 2 1 1 5 1 6 1 49 5 3 64 Kod: 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 27 Frek: 5 4 10 2 141 4 1 2 1 71 5 Kod: 28 29 30 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 40 Frek: 4 1 261 3 5 5 66 2 4 5 268 Kod: 42 43 45 46 47 48 50 51 52 53 54 Frek: 2 2 53 1 2 4 295 1 1 1 2 Kod: 55 58 60 64 65 69 70 75 80 85 90 Frek: 25 1 137 2 8 1 86 7 92 4 17 Kod: 95 98 100 110 120 130 140 150 155 160 200 Frek: 2 1 109 1 10 3 1 29 1 3 9 Kod: 250 251 300 305 350 400 407 500 503 600 605 Frek: 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Kod: 803 999 Frek: 1 64
VAR 40 SUBSCRIPTION EC NEWS B:6 Loc 59 width 1 MD=9 Q.B:6. Do you subscribe to any economic daily newspaper such as 'Korea Economics' (KE) or 'Daily Economic News (DEN)' at home? If yes, which one of them? 29 1. Korea Economics (KE) 44 2. Daily Economic News (DEN) 10 3. Both KE and DEN 1911 5. Neither KE nor DEN 6 9. MD
VAR 41 ECO. NEWS AT WORK B:7 Loc 60 width 1 MD=9 Q.B:7. Do you sometimes read any economic daily newspaper such as 'Korea Economics' or 'Daily Economic News' at work? If yes, which one of them? 71 1. Korea Economics (KE) 134 2. Daily Economic News (DEN) 26 3. Both KE and DEN 1699 5. Neither KE nor DEN 70 9. MD
VAR 42 READ ECO. NEWSPAPER B:8 Loc 61 width 1 MD=9 Q.B:8. Have you ever read any daily economic newspaper during the recent month? 132 1. Yes 1583 5. No 285 9. MD
VAR 43 KE OR DEN B:9 Loc 62 width 1 MD=9 Q.B:9. (READ ECONOMIC NEWSPAPER:) Was it 'Korea Economic' or 'Daily Economic News' you have read? 41 1. Korea Economics 84 2. Daily Economic News 1875 9. INAP