Creator/Principal investigator(s)

Sölve Elmståhl - Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Medicine in Malmö. Division of Geriatric Medicine


The national study SNAC - The Swedish National Study on Aging and Care, includes four participating areas: SNAC-Blekinge, SNAC Kungsholmen, SNAC Nordanstig and SNAC Skåne Gott Åldrande i Skåne (GÅS). In all four areas, a independently research centre conducts a population study and a health care system study. (Metadata related to the main study SNAC and the other participating areas can be found under the Related studies tab).

Gott Åldrande i Skåne is intended for a random selection of people, 60 years and older, who live in the municipalities of Malmö, Eslöv, Hässleholm, Osby and Ystad. The study consists of two parts – the population study and the care system study.

The population study:
The baseline examination was conducted between 2001-2004, with a total of 2,931 individuals aged 60-93 years. The baseline examination included clinical examinations by a physician, a psychologist and a nurse as well as a questionnaire. The first re-examination of participants aged >78 years was performed during 2005-2007. The second re-examination of each participant in the baseline examination

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Research principal, contributors, and funding

Research principal

Lund University

Responsible department/unit

Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University


Ole Larsen - Lund University

Henrik Ekström - Lund University

Protection and ethical review

Data contains personal data


Sensitive personal data


Type of personal data

Demographics, Biometrics, Medical

Code key exists


Ethics Review

Swedish Ethical Review Authority - Ref. 2021_05847-02 (EPM)

- Ref. 2015/859 (Lund); 2017/539 (Lund);

Lund - Ref. 951-02, LU 650-00, LU 744-00

Method and time period


Individuals aged 60 or over, residing in Eslöv, Malmö, Osby, Hässleholm or Ystad.

Study design

Observational study

Description of study design

The study is a longitudinal sequential population based cohort study of the general population covering five municipalites including urban and rural areas in southern Sweden. The population Register was used for a randomised Invitation of participants . The study covers medical examination, physical and cognitive assessment and questionnaire including sociodemographics, life style factors, economy, QoL, formal and informal care.

Sampling procedure

Population part: The sample of older people in the participating areas includes nine representative cohorts aged 60, 66, 72, 78, 81, 84, 87, 90 and 93 years with supplementary selections for the younger and the oldest age groups. Re-examination takes place every three years for people 78 years and older and every six years for people 60-72 years.
Every six years, new cohorts of 60 and 81 year old's are included from the five municipalities (2007/2013/2020/)

The care system part: Collection of information within the healthcare system part was initiated in all areas with a cross-sectional survey involving all persons, who as of February 1, 2001 received long-term care and care financed by the municipality or county council.

Time period(s) investigated

2001 – ongoing

Biobank is connected to the study

The study has collected samples/material which are stored in a scientific collection or biobank

Scientific collection or biobank name: SNAC-S

Type(s) of sample: Blood tests and brain imaging (MRI)

Geographic coverage

Geographic spread

Geographic location: Osby Municipality, Malmö Municipality, Eslöv Municipality, Ystad Municipality, Hässleholm Municipality

Geographic description: Skåne (Eslöv, Malmö, Osby, Hässleholm och Ystad)

Topic and keywords


care of the elderly, aged, ageing, housing for the elderly, pensions, living conditions, mental health, age groups, health services, therapeutics, activities of daily living, physical examination, blood pressure, aged, 80 and over, blood specimen collection, epidemiologic studies, cohort studies, dental care for aged, data collection, health surveys, dementia, population characteristics, frail elderly, hearing, geriatric psychiatry, life style, interview, medicine, heart function tests, electrocardiography, follow-up studies, nursing care, geriatric nursing, memory, longitudinal studies, prospective studies, exercise, population surveillance, vision tests, social sciences, socioeconomic factors, risk factors, middle aged, mortality, marital status, cause of death, surveys and questionnaires, epidemiology, public health, health, health services research, economics, medical, health status, body weight, culture, drug utilization, retention, psychology, organizational innovation, retirement, interpersonal relations, registries, disease, hospitalization, morbidity, delivery of health care, social environment, social conditions, social problems, social support, vision, ocular, quality of life, housing conditions, leisure time activities, height (physiology), weight (physiology), respiratory function, assistance needs, balance, swedish cohort consortium (scc), scania, blood count, concentrations capacity,, epihealth, near- national e-infrastructure for aging research, epihealth_skåne, renal function, walking test


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Wranker, L. S., Elmståhl, S., & Ekström, H. (2018). Pain and alcohol : A comparison of two cohorts of 60 year old women and men: Findings from the Good Aging in Skåne study. In Scandinavian Journal of Pain (Vol. 18, Issue 4, pp. 611–620).

Ekstrom, H., Auoja, N. L., Elmstahl, S., Sandin Wranker, L., Ekström, H., Auoja, N. L., & Elmståhl, S. (2020). High Burden among Older Family Caregivers is Associated with High Prevalence of Symptoms: Data from the Swedish Study “Good Aging in Skane (GAS).” In Journal of Aging Research (No. 5272130; Vol. 2020).

Wranker L.S., Rennemark M., Berglund J., Elmståhl S. Relationship between pain and Quality of Life-Findings from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care-Blekinge study. Scandinavian Journal of Pain, 2014;5:270-275.

Gavrilidou NN, Pihlsgård M, Elmståhl S.High degree of BMI misclassification of malnutrition among Swedish elderly population: Age-adjusted height estimation using knee height and demispan. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 May;69(5):565-71. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.183. Epub 2014 Sep 10.
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Bramell-Risberg E, Jarnlo G-B, Elmståhl S. Older women with dementia can perform fast alternating forearm movements and performance is correlated with tests of lower extremity function. Clinical Interventions in Aging 2013:8 175-184.
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Elmståhl, S. I., Sanmartin Berglund, J., Fagerstrom, C., Ekström, H., Berglund, J. S., Fagerström, C., Elmståhl, S., & Elmståhl, S. (2020). The life satisfaction index-a (LSI-A) : Normative data for a general swedish population aged 60 to 93 years. In Clinical Interventions in Aging (Vol. 15, pp. 2031–2039).
URN: urn:nbn:se:bth-20711

Ekdahl J, Elmståhl S. Portion size among elder subjects in the general population. A methodological dietary study from Malmö, Sweden. J Aging: Research and Clinical Practice, J Aging Res Clin Practice 2013;2(2):158-167

Dahlrup B, Nordell E, Steen-Carlsson K, Elmståhl S. Health economic analysis on a psychosocial intervention for family caregivers of persons with dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2013 Oct 24;37(3-4):181-195.

Bramell-Risberg E, Jarnlo G-B, Elmståhl S. Separate physical tests of lower extremities and postural control are associated with cognitive impairment. Results from the general population study Good Aging in Skåne (GÅS-SNAC). Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:195-205.
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Werntoft E, Hallberg IR, Edberg A-K. Prioritization and resource allocation in health care: the views of older people receiving continuous public care and service. Health Expect 2007; 10(2): 117-128.
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Månsson, T., Overton, M., Pihlsgård, M., & Elmståhl, S. (2019). Impaired kidney function is associated with lower cognitive function in the elder general population. Results from the Good Aging in Skåne (GÅS) cohort study. In BMC Geriatrics (No. 360; Vol. 19, Issue 1).

Lindberg T, Berglund J, Elmståhl S, Bohman D. Older individuals need for knowledge and follow up about their chronic Atrial Fibrillation, lifelong medical treatment and medical controls. Scand J Caring Sciences. 2017 in press.

Elmståhl, S., Dahlrup, B., Ekström, H., & Nordell, E. (2018). The association between medical diagnosis and caregiver burden : a cross-sectional study of recipients of informal support and caregivers from the general population study ‘Good Aging in Skåne’, Sweden. In Aging clinical and experimental research (Vol. 30, Issue 9, pp. 1023–1032).

Kristensson J, Hallberg IR, Lundborg P. Health care costs for people aged 65+ two years prior to them receiving long-term municipal care. Aging Clin Exp Research 2008 Dec;20(6):547-55.

Ekström H, Elmståhl S. Restriction in social participation and lower life satisfaction among fractured in pain. Results from the population study "Good Aging in Skåne". Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 2008 May-June; 46 (3):409-24.
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Luoto J Elmståhl S, Wollmer P, Pihlsgård M. Incidence of airflow limitation in subjects 65-100 years of age. Eur Respir J. 2016 Feb;47(2):461-72. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00635-2015. Epub 2015 Dec 17.
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Ekberg O, Elmståhl S, Björgell O, Hillarp B, Maly P, Redlund Johnell I, Rundgren Å. Geriatrisk radiologi, en viktig del av bild- och funktionsmedicin. Nordisk Geriatrik, 2008 (11) 5; 4-20.

Condelius A, Edberg A-K, Hallberg IR, Jakobsson U. Utilization of medical healthcare among people receiving long-term care at home or in special accommodation. Scand J Caring Sci. 2010;24:404-13.
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Enkvist Å, Ekström H, Elmståhl S. What factors affect life satisfaction (LS) among the oldest-old? Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012 Jan-Feb;54(1):140-5.
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Ekström H, Dahlin-Ivanoff S, Elmståhl S. Effects of walking speed and results of Timed Get-Up-and-Go tests on quality of life and social participation in elderly individuals with a history of osteoporosis-related fractures. Journal Aging Health, 2011; Aug 25 1-21.
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Enkvist Å, Ekström H, Elmståhl S. Associations between cognitive abilities and life satisfaction in the oldest-old Results from the longitudinal population study Good Aging in Skåne. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 2013, 8:845-853.
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Roos V, Elmståhl S, Ingelsson E, Sundström J, Ärnlöv J, Lind L. Metabolic syndrome development during ageing - with special reference to obesity without the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 2016, Nov 1. doi: 10.1111/ane.12709. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 27804110

Karlsson S, Edberg A-K, Westergren A, Hallberg IR. Functional ability and health complaints among older people with a combination of public and informal care vs. public care only. Scand J Caring Sci. 2008; 22(1):136-48.
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Ekström, H., Elmståhl, S., Sandin Wranker, L., Ekström, H., & Elmståhl, S. (2021). Physical Performance in Older Cohorts: A Comparison of 81-Year-Old Swedish Men and Women Born Twelve Years Apart - Results from the Swedish Study “good Aging in Skåne.” In Journal of Aging Research (No. 8813992; Vol. 2021).

Elmståhl, S., Ellström, K., Siennicki-Lantz, A., & Abul-Kasim, K. (2019). Association between cerebral microbleeds and hypertension in the Swedish general population “Good Aging in Skåne” study. In Journal of Clinical Hypertension (Vol. 21, Issue 8, pp. 1099–1107).

Condelius A, Hallberg IR, Jacobsson U. Medical healthcare utilization as related to long-term care at home or in special accommodation. Archives Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2010; 51: 250-6.
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Berner J, Rennemark M, Jogréus C, Anderberg, P, Sköldunger A, Wahlberg M, Elmståhl S, Berglund J. Internet use by older-adults in rural and urban settings in Sweden - results from the SNAC study. Health Informatics J. 2014 Feb 24. [Epub ahead of print]

Werngren-Elgström M, Iwarsson S, Elmståhl S, Dehlin O. ADL dependence and perceived health among elderly deaf sign language users. A comparison with a matched group of elderly hearing people. Scand J Occup Ther. 2005 Jun;12(2):81-8.

Lindberg T, Bohman D, Elmståhl S, Jogréus C, Sanmartin Berglund J. Prevalence of unknown and untreated arrhythmias in an older outpatient population screened by wireless long-term recording ECG. Clinical Interventions in Aging 2016: 10; 11: 1083-90

Werntoft E, Rahm Hallberg I, Elmståhl S, Edberg A.-K. (2005) Older people's views of priorities in health care. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research 2005; 17:402-411.

Karlsson S, Edberg A-K, Jakobsson U, Hallberg IR. Care satisfaction among older people receiving public care and service at home or in special accommodation. J Clin Nurs. 2013 Feb;22(3-4):318-30.
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Karlsson S, Edberg A-K, Hallberg IR.Professional's and older person's assessments of functional ability, health complaints and received care and service. A descriptive study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2010 Oct;47(10):1217-27.
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Dahlrup B, Ekström H, Nordell E, Elmståhl S. Coping as a caregiver: A question of strain and its consequences on life satisfaction and health-related quality of life. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2015 Sep-Oct;61(2):261-70. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2015.06.007. Epub 2015 Jun 25
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Enkvist Å, Ekström H, Elmståhl S. Associations between functional ability and life satisfaction in the oldest old: results from the longitudinal population study Good Aging in Skåne. Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2012:7 313-320.

Jakobsson U, Hallberg IR. Mortality among elderly receiving long-term care: a longitudinal cohort study. Aging Clinical & Experimental Research. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2006 Dec;18(6):503-11.

Werner K, Elmståhl S, Christensson A, Pihlsgård M. Male sex and vascular risk factors affect cystatin-C derived renal function in older people without diabetes or overt vascular disease. Age and Ageing, 2014; 43 (3): 411-7.
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Lagergren M, Fagerström C, Nordell E, Berglund J, Fratiglioni L, Sjölund B-M, Wimo A, Elmståhl S. Horizontal and vertical targeting efficiency - a population-based comparison between users and non-users of public long-term care for older persons in Sweden. Ageing and Society, 2014;34:700-719. DOI: Published online: 20 December 2012.
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Lagergren M, Fagerström C, Sjölund B-M, Berglund J, Fratiglioni L, Nordell E, von Strauss E, Wimo A, Elmståhl S. Horizontal and vertical targeting - a population-based comparison of public eldercare services in urban and rural areas of Sweden. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2016 Feb;28(1):147-58. doi: 10.1007/s40520-015-0369-5. Epub 2015 May 20.

Kylén M, Ekström H, Haak M, Elmståhl S, Iwarsson S. Home and health in the third age - Methodological background and descriptive findings. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Jul 11;11(7):7060-80.

Montnemery P, Elmståhl S. Diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with special reference to over- and underdiagnosis using spirometry. Book chapter, Primary Care, 2012, Primary Care at a Glance - Hot Topics and New Insights 2012 ISBN 979-953-307-556-2.
ISBN: 979-953-307-556-2

Elmståhl S, Ekström H. Prediktorer för livstillfredsställelse, funktionsförmåga och aktiviteter i det dagliga livet - Data från den longitudinella befolkningsstudien ”Gott Åldrande i Skåne” En sexårsuppföljning av 60 till 93 år gamla malmöbor. Geriatriskt utvecklingscentrum, Skånes universitetssjukhus, Malmö, 2012, 1-23. ISBN-nummer 978-91-975977-1-5.
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ISBN: 978-91-975977-1-5

Elmståhl S, Widerström E. Orthostatic intolerance predicts mild cognitive impairment: incidence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia from the Swedish general population cohort Good Aging in Skåne. Clin Interv Aging. 2014 Nov 20;9:1993-2002.
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Modig S, Kristensson J, Ekwall AK, Hallberg IR, Midlöv P. Frail elderly patients in primary care--their medication knowledge and beliefs about prescribed medicines. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;65(2):151-5.

Ekström H, Elmståhl S. Pain and fracture are independent factors related to lower walking speed and grip strength seven years after an osteoporotic fracture. Acta Orthopedica 2006, Dec;77(6):902-11.
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Werntoft E, Hallberg IR, Elmståhl S, Edberg A-K. Older people´s view of how to finance increasing health care costs. Ageing & Society, 2006; 26: 497-514.

Sterner G, Elmståhl S, Frid A. Metformin treatment, renal function and lactic acidosis. A population based study. British J Diabetes Vascular Disease, 2012;12:227-231.

Douhan J, Elmståhl S. Fysisk aktivitet & bra matvanor för det goda åldrandet. - Resultat från forskningsprojektet Gott Åldrande i Skåne (GÅS). Geriatriskt utvecklingscentrum, Skånes universitetssjukhus, Malmö, 2013; 1-34. ISBN-nummer 978-91-975977-2-2.

Stenhagen M, Nordell E, Elmståhl S. Falls in elderly people: a multifactorial analysis of risk markers using data from the Swedish general population study 'Good Ageing in Skåne'. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2013 Apr;25(1):59-67. doi: 10.1007/s40520-013-0015-z. Epub 2013 Feb 21.
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Ekström H, Dahlin-Ivanoff S, Elmståhl S. Does informal support influence social participation of fractured elderly people? Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2013 May-Jun;56(3):457-65
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Lagergren M, Fratiglioni L, Hallberg IR, Berglund J, Elmståhl S, Hagberg B, Holst G, Rennemark M, Sjölund BM, Thorslund M, Wiberg I, Winblad B, Wimo A. A longitudinal study integrating population, care and social services data. The Swedish National study on Aging and Care (SNAC). Aging Clin Exp Res. 2004 Apr;16(2):158-68.

Jönsson KM, Wieloch M, Sterner G, Nyman U, Elmståhl S, Engström G, Svensson PJ. Glomerular filtration rate in patients with atrial fibrillation on warfarin treatment: a subgroup analysis from the AURICULA registry in Sweden. Thromb Res. 2011 Oct;128(4):341-5.
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Manskow US, Sigurdardottir S, Røe C, Andelic N, Skandsen T, Damsgård Elmståhl S, Anke A. Factors affecting caregiver burden one year after severe traumatic brain injury: A prospective nationwide multicenter study. J Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 2014 Aug 12. [Epub ahead of print]

Enkvist Å, Ekström H, Elmståhl S. Life satisfaction (LS) and symptoms among the oldest-old: Results from the longitudinal population study called Good Aging in Skåne (GÅS). Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012 Jan-Feb;54(1):146-50.
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Bramell-Risberg E, Jarnlo G-B, Elmståhl S. Slowing of alternating forearm movements is associated with cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older people. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2010;29(5):457-66.
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Haak M, Kylén M, Ekström H, Schmidt SM, Horstmann V, Elmståhl S, Iwarsson S. Relationships between perceived aspects of home and symptoms in a cohort aged 67-70. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2015 Nov-Dec;61(3):529-34. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2015.06.013. Epub 2015 Jun 25.

Egervall, K., Rosso, A., & Elmståhl, S. (2021). Association between cardiovascular disease- and inflammation-related serum biomarkers and poor lung function in elderly. In Clinical Proteomics (No. 23; Vol. 18, Issue 1).

Szanto O, Montnemery P, Elmståhl S. Prevalence of airway obstruction in the elderly: results from a cross-sectional spirometric study of nine age cohorts between the ages of 60 and 93 years. Prim Care Respir J. 2010 Sep;19(3):231-6. .
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Delavaran H, Jönsson A-C, Lövkvist H, Iwarsson S, Elmståhl S, Norrving B, Lindgren A. Cognitive function in stroke survivors: A 10-year follow-up study. Acta Neurol Scand, 2016; Nov 1. doi: 10.1111/ane.12709. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 7804110

Wimo A, Elmståhl S, Fratiglioni L, Sjölund BM, Sköldunger A, Fagerström C, Berglund J, Lagergren M Formal and Informal Care of Community-Living Older People: A Population-Based Study from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care. J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(1):17-24. doi: 10.1007/s12603-016-0747-5.
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Karlsson S, Edberg A-K, Westergren A, Hallberg IR. Older people receiving public long-term care in relation to consumption of medical health care and informal care. Open Geriatr Med J 2008; 1: 1-9.

Stenhagen M, Ekström H, Nordell E, Elmståhl S. Falls in the general elderly population: A 3- and 6-year follow-up of risk factors using data from the longitudinal population study ‘Good Aging in Skåne’" BMC Geriatr. 2013 Aug 7;13(1):81. [Epub ahead of print] MID: 23919320
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Legrand H, Nordell E, Pihlsgård M, Elmståhl S. A long-recommended but seldom-used method of analysis for fall injuries found a unique pattern of risk factors in the youngest-old. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2015 Aug;27(4):439-45. doi: 10.1007/s40520-014-0308-x. Epub 2015 Jan 14.
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Wranker L.S., Rennemark M., Berglund J., Elmståhl S. A 9-year follow-up of women and men reporting pain: Results from the Swedish National Study of Aging and Care - Blekinge (accepted), 2016

Christensson A, Elmståhl S. Estimation of the age-dependent decline of glomerular filtration rate from formulas based on creatinine and cystatin C in the general elderly population. Nephron Clin Pract. 2011;117(1):c40-50. Epub 2010.
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Werntoft E, Edberg A-K, Rooke L, Hermerén G, Elmståhl S, Hallberg IR. Older people's views of prioritization in health care. The applicability of an interview study. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2005;14, Suppl 2, 64-74.

Gavrilidou NN, Pihlsgård M, Elmståhl S. Anthropometric reference data for elderly Swedes and its disease-related pattern. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Sep;69(9):1066-75. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.73. Epub 2015 May 20.
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Sandin-Wranker L, Rennemark M, Elmståhl S, Berglund J. The influence of personality traits on perception of pain in older adults - Findings from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care - Blekinge study. Scandinavian Journal of Pain, 2015;7:3-8

Hägg M. Houston B. Ekström H. Elmståhl S. Wann Hansson C. Sleep quality, use of hypnotics and sleeping habits in different age groups among older people. Scand J Car Sci, 2014, Feb, DOI: 10.1111/scs.12119

Stenhagen M, Ekström H, Nordell E, Elmståhl S. Accidental falls, health-related quality of life and life satisfaction: A prospective study of the general elderly population. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2014 Jan-Feb;58(1):95-100. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2013.07.006. Epub 2013 Aug 8.
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Elmståhl, S., Lundholm-Auoja, N., Ekström, H., Sandin Wranker, L., Ekström, H., Elmståhl, S., & Lundholm-Auoja, N. (2020). Being an older family caregiver does not impact healthcare and mortality: Data from the study ‘Good Aging in Skåne.’ In Scandinavian Journal of Public Health.

Stenhagen M, Ekström H, Nordell E, Elmståhl S. Both deterioration and improvement in activities of daily living are related to falls: A 6-year follow-up of the general elderly population study 'Good Aging in Skane' (GAS-SNAC). Clin Interv Aging. 2014 Oct 28;9:1839-46.

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Data format / data structure


Creator/Principal investigator(s)

Sölve Elmståhl - Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Medicine in Malmö. Division of Geriatric Medicine

Time period(s) investigated

2001 – ongoing

Data collection

  • Time period(s) for data collection: 2001-02-01

Number of individuals/objects


Response rate/participation rate


Contact for questions about the data

Is part of collection at SND

Swedish Cohort Consortium (

NEAR - National E-Infrastructure for Aging Research in Sweden

Scania Metadatabase for Epidemiology (SME)

SNAC - Swedish National study on Aging and Care.

Published: 2014-01-10
Last updated: 2022-03-07