Northern Hemisphere Extratropical 2000-Year and 500-Year Temperature Reconstructions


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Creator/Principal investigator(s)

Bo Christiansen - Danish Meteorological Institute

Fredrik Charpentier Ljungquist - Stockholm University


We present two new multi-proxy reconstructions of the extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere (30-90°N) mean temperature: a two-millennia long reconstruction reaching back to 1 AD and a 500-yr long reconstruction reaching back to 1500 AD. The reconstructions are based on compilations of 32 and 91 proxies, respectively, of which only little more than half pass a screening procedure and are included in the actual reconstructions. The proxies are of different types and of different resolutions (annual, annual-to-decadal, and decadal) but all have previously been shown to relate to local or regional temperature. We use a reconstruction method, LOCal (LOC), that recently has been shown to confidently reproduce low-frequency variability. Confidence intervals are obtained by an ensemble pseudo-proxy method that both estimates the variance and the bias of the reconstructions. The two-millennia long reconstruction shows a well defined Medieval Warm Period, with a peak warming ca. 950-1050AD reaching 0.6°C relative to the reference period 1880-1960 AD. The 500-yr long reconstruction confirms previous results

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Research principal, contributors, and funding

Research principal

Danish Meteorological Institute

Responsible department/unit

Danish Meteorological Institute
Protection and ethical review

Data contains personal data


Method and time period

Time period(s) investigated

1 – 2000

Geographic coverage

Christiansen, B., and Ljungqvist, F.C. 2012: The extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere temperature in the last two millennia: reconstructions of low-frequency variability. Climate of the Past, 8: 765-786,, doi:10.5194/cp-8-765-2012.

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Published: 2019-10-08