KOREAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY 1992
                              SSD 0394

                       Principal investigator
                            Institute for
                       Korean Election Studies

                          First SSD edition
                            November 1992

    

                 Swedish Social Science Data Service
                           Skanstorget 18

                  Go to variable list
                          S-411 22 Göteborg

    
                    ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF ASSISTANCE

    All manuscripts utilizing data made available through the
    Swedish Social Science Data Service should acknowledge that
    fact as well as identify the original collector of the data.
    SSD urges all users of SSD data facilities to follow some
    adaption of this statement with the parantheses indicating
    items to be filled in appropriately or deleted by the
    individual user.

              The data (and tabulations) utilized in this
              (publication) were made available (in part) by
              the Swedish Social Science Data Service. The
              data for KOREAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY 1992
              were originally collected by the Institute
              for Korean Election Studies (IKES). Neither
              the collector of the original data nor SSD
              bear any responsibility for the analyses or
              interpretations presented here.

    According to an agreement between the Institute for Korean
    Election Studies and the Swedish Social Science Data Service
    KOREAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY 1992 can be disseminated to
    and analysed by researchers on condition that the usage is
    for research purpose. The code of ethics for humanities and
    social sciences research established by the Swedish
    Humanities and Social Sciences Research Council, and
    published in HSFR-ETIK, must be adhered to wherever
    applicable.

    Data and/or documentation can not be made available to any
    third party without the written permission of SSD.

    Two copies of all reports based on these data shall be sent
    to the SSD, which will forward one copy to the principal
    investigator(s).

    

                              CONTENTS

                                                           Page

    INTRODUCTION

           Background                                         I

           Codebook information                              II

           SSD documentation                                III

    VARIABEL DESCRIPTION                                     IV

    CODEBOOK                                                  1

    
                                  I

                            INTRODUCTION

                             BACKGROUND

    This election survey was conducted by the Institute for
    Korean Election Studies (IKES) under the auspices of the
    Korea National Council for Research Promotion and the
    National Election Management Bureau. This survey is the
    first research product of the IKES. As a further
    continuation of a series of IKES research, surveys are
    planned to be carried out at the time of the presidential
    and Korean Assembly elections.

    Professor Nam-Young Lee (Sungmyong Woman's University) and
    professor Joong-Bin Cho (Gungmin University) stand for
    planning and managing the research. Some co-researchers
    including professor Myong-Ku Kang (Ajoo University),
    professor Byong-Joon Kim (Gungmin University), professor
    Sun-Jong Kim (Kang Won National University), professor
    Ung-Jin Kim (Hanguk University of Foreign Studies), Jae-Han
    Kim (Hallim University), Ph.D. Tae-Il Kim (Institute for
    National Unification), professor Chan-Uk Park (Seoul
    National University), professor Keun-Won Song (Kyongsang
    University), professor Won-Kyu Lee (Chonbuk National
    University), and professor Yong-Heon Chon (Kyemyong
    University), stand for field research.

    Miscellaneous works like compiling and managing the
    interview questionnaires could be completely executed by the
    two M.A. students, Chong-Kook Yun (Gungmin University) and
    He-Young Kwon (Sungmyong Woman's University).

    Interviewers who were selected from the different
    universities in Seoul region were higher undergraduate and
    M.A. students whose major was political science.
    Interviewers of the other cities were selected among the
    higher undergraduate students of the respective region.
    After being instructed and well-trained, they conducted the
    designed fieldwork.

    Interviews were fully accomplished with oral interviews by
    visiting every household drawn. In the case that the
    selected respondents might not be interviewed for the
    reasons of disease, death, movement, and so on, such
    respondents were replaced to the alternative ones who were
    prepared in advance. The interviews were fully executed for
    five days between March 26 and 30, 1992.

    
    Sample design

    The sample for the survey was drawn on the basis of the
    'multistage probability sample method'. At the first stage,
    the total sample size of 1200 were drawn with probability
    proportionate to electorate of the cities and communities.

    At the second stage, electoral constituencies within which
    30 eligible voters would be drawn were selected. Eleven
    constituencies were selected in Seoul, four in Pusan, two in
    Inchon, and one in Kwangju, and so on.

    Within each constituency drawn two polling districts were
    allocated at the third stage, and finally a systematic
    random sample of 15 individuals were drawn within each
    polling district with probability proportionate to
    electorate.

    
                                 II

                        CODEBOOK INFORMATION

    The example below is a reproduction of information appearing
    in a machine-readable codebook for a typical variable. The
    numbers in brackets do not appear but are references to the
    descriptions which follow this example.

    ............................................................

    (1) VAR 35   (2) ASSESSMENT OF GOVT     25    (3) MD=9
        REF 35   (4) LOC 51  WIDTH 1              (5) NUMERIC

     (6) Q.25  How well do you think the government takes
               care of politics?

     (7) ......................

        (8)  (9)  (10)
        11    1.   Very well
       315    2.   Moderately well
       680    3.   Moderately poorly
       182    4.   Very poorly

        18    9.   MD

    ............................................................

    (1) Variabel- and reference number. Usually identical.
    Should the data be subset or rearranged by an OSIRIS
    program, the variable numbers would change to reflect the
    order of the new dataset, while the reference number would
    remain unchanged to reflect the variable number in the
    codebook describing the archived dataset.

    (2) Variable name. An abbreviation of the question at issue
    (maximum of 24 characters).

    (3) Missing data. Indicates the code values of missing data.

    (4) Position. Indicates the starting location and width of
    this variable.

    (5) Indicates if data is numeric or alphabetic.

    

    (6) The full text (question) supplied by the investigator to
    describe the variable.

    (7) Additional comments or explanations appended to the
    variable description.

    (8) Frequency of occurence of each code value.

    (9) Code values occuring in the data.

    (10) Textual definitions of the codes.

    
                                 III

                          SSD DOCUMENTATION

    The documentation has been processed using a computer-based
    documentation system made available for the SSD from the
    Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social
    Research (ICPSR) at the University of Michigan. The system
    is called Guided Interactive Dataset Organization (GIDO).

    




Variable list


1 SSD Study Number 0394 2 SSD Edition Number 1 3 SSD Part Number 001 4 ID-number 5 City 6 Constituency 7 Research ID ELECTION CAMPAIGN & VOTE 8 Winner perception 9 Perception of elected candidate 10 Winning party perception 11 Political conversation 12 Information source 13 Exposure to party meeting 14 Exposure to political meeting for candidate speech 15 Exposure to canvassing 16 Interest in election result 17 Feeling about candidates 18 Voted in the election 19 Time for candidate selection 20 Reason for vote on candidate 21 Feeling about electoral participation 22 Most important element for candidate competence 23 Prompt factor 24 Party voted for 25 Motive for party choice 26 Reason for abstention 27 1987 presidential election SERIOUS PROBLEMS & IMPORTANT ISSUES 28 Serious national problem: First item 29 Serious national problem: Second item 30 Most important election issue 31 Feeling of household economy 32 Assessment of party fusion 33 Party closest to respondent 34 Reason for party closeness POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS & POLITICS IN GENERAL 35 Assessment of government 36 Assessment of political efficacy, 1 37 Assessment of political efficacy, 2 38 Assessment of politicians 39 Assessment of assembly members 40 Assessment of politics in general 41 Party orientation FAIRNESS OF ELECTION CAMPAIGN 42 Electoral fairness 43 Reason for unfairness 44 Experience of taking money offered by candidates 45 Experience of receiving candidates' offering 46 Eating food offered by candidates 47 Group-tour offered by candidates 48 Candidates' promise of economic/material reward 49 Mobilizing central or local government organization 50 Influence of senior staff at work 51 Reason for receiving candidates' bid 52 Impact of illegalities on the vote 53 Urgent measure against illegal election campaign 54 Coverage on clean election campaign: TV 55 Coverage on clean election campaign: Radio 56 Coverage on clean election campaign: Newpaper 57 Coverage on clean election campaign: Magazine 58 Coverage on clean election campaign: Poster 59 Coverage on clean election campaign: Government information leaflet 60 Campaign effectiveness 61 Fair-play spirit NATIONAL ELECTION MANAGEMENT BUREAU 62 Role of the National Election Management Bureau 63 Influence of the National Election Management Bureau 64 Impending problem of the National Election Management Bureau BACKGROUND 65 Age 66 Gender 67 Education 68 Rich or Poor 69 Own income 70 Household income 71 Household size 72 Housing 73 Occupation 74 Hometown 75 Urban-rural 76 House 77 Interview method 78 Respondent type

VAR 1  SSD STUDY NUMBER 0394                       Loc 1  width 4


SSD Study Number 0394


VAR 2 SSD EDITION NUMBER 1 Loc 5 width 1 SSD Edition Number The number identifying the release edition of this dataset.
VAR 3 SSD PART NUMBER 001 Loc 6 width 3 SSD Part Number The number identifying this part of a 1-part study.
VAR 4 ID-NUMBER Loc 9 width 5 ID-number
VAR 5 CITY Loc 14 width 2 City 312 01. Seoul 105 02. Pusan 60 03. Taegu 60 04. Inchon 30 05. Kwangju 32 06. Taejon 172 07. Kyonggido 44 08. Kangwondo 52 09. Choongbuk 34 10. Choongnam 60 11. Chonbuk 65 12. Chonnam 75 13. Kyongbuk 105 14. Kyongnam
VAR 6 CONSTITUENCY Loc 16 width 2 Constituency 15 00. Seongdong Kap 13 01. Seongdong Eul 29 02. Joongrang Kap 30 03. Seongbuk Eul 30 04. Tobong Eul 30 05. Mapo Eul 30 06. Kangseo Kap 30 07. Yongdeungpo Kap 30 08. Kwanak Eul 30 09. Seocho Eul 15 10. Kangnam Kap 30 11. Kangdong Kap 15 12. Busan Dong Ku 30 13. Busan Jin Eul 30 14. Busan Buku Kap 30 15. Heundae 30 16. Taegu Buku 30 17. Taegu Dalseo Kap 30 18. Inchon Namgu Kap 30 19. Inchon Seogu 30 20. Kwangju Buku Kap 32 21. Taejon Seogu 45 22. Kyonggi Suwon 41 23. Kyonggi Kwangmyong 30 24. Kyonggi Songtan 15 25. Kyonggi Osan 29 26. Kyonggi Kwaseong 12 27. Kyonggi Pochon 30 28. Kwangwon Chunchon 14 29. Kwangwon Wonju 18 30. Choongbuk Chongju 18 31. Choongbuk Chongwon 6 32. Choongnam Kongju 17 33. Choongnam Kongju 11 34. Choongnam Chongyang 19 35. Chonbuk Chonju (Deokjin) 11 36. Chonbuk Chonju (Wansan) 30 37. Chonbuk Namwon 17 38. Chonnam Sunchon 48 39. Chonnam Posung 30 40. Kyongbuk Pohang 15 41. Kyongbuk Chongsong 30 42. Kyongbuk Andong 30 43. Kyongnam Masan 30 44. Kyongnam Jinhe 30 45. Kyongnam Jinyang 15 46. Kyongnam Yangsan 16 47. Choongnam Chonan
VAR 7 RESEARCH ID Loc 18 width 2 Research ID Code scheme for this question is missing. Kod: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Frek: 48 47 48 48 48 48 47 47 46 47 47 45 45 43 Kod: 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Frek: 43 36 35 33 31 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 29 30 Kod: 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Frek: 30 29 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 Kod: 43 44 45 46 47 48 Frek: 2 2 2 1 1 1
VAR 8 WINNER PERCEPTION 1 Loc 20 width 1 MD=9 Q.1. Do you remember which candidate won at your local district in the recent election? 1087 1. Correct 109 5. Wrong 10 9. MD
VAR 9 CANDIDATE PERCEPTION 2 Loc 21 width 1 MD=9 Q.2. Do you remember which party the candidate who won the vote in your local district represented? 524 1. Democratic Liberal Party 331 2. Democratic Party 126 3. Unification National Party 1 4. New Government Party 127 5. Independent 93 8. DK 4 9. MD
VAR 10 WIN PARTY PERCEPTION 2 Loc 22 width 1 MD=9 Q.2(1). Winning candidates party <See Q.2 for complete question text> 1024 1. Correct 178 5. Wrong 4 9. Undocumented code
VAR 11 POLITICAL CONVERSATION 3 Loc 23 width 1 MD=9 Q.3. How often have you talked with people surrounding you on voting decision during the election campaign? 72 1. Very often 231 2. Often 530 3. Less often 369 4. Never 4 9. MD
VAR 12 INFORMATION SOURCE 4 Loc 24 width 2 MD=99 Q.4. What was the main source of your information of candidate and parties? 48 01. Hanging placard 179 02. Wall newspaper 75 03. Public prints 433 04. Ad papers of parties 129 05. Candidate speech/Debate among candidates 59 06. TV 2 07. Radio 28 08. Newspaper 228 09. Conversation with others 25 99. MD
VAR 13 EXPOS. PARTY MEETING 5 Loc 26 width 1 MD=9 Q.5. Have you ever seen/been to local party meeting or political meeting for candidate speech during the period of election campaign? Q.5(1). Exposure to local party meeting 131 1. Yes 961 5. No 114 9. MD
VAR 14 EXPO. CANDIDATE SPEECH 5 Loc 27 width 1 MD=9 Q.5(2). Exposure to political meeting for candidate speech <See Q.5 for complete question text> 281 1. Yes 860 5. No 65 9. MD
VAR 15 EXPO.TO CANVASSING 6 Loc 28 width 1 MD=9 Q.6. During the election campaign, have you ever met party activists who promted for certain candidate? 459 1. Yes 742 5. No 5 9. MD
VAR 16 INTEREST ELEC. RESULT 7 Loc 29 width 1 MD=9 Q.7. How much were you interested in the election result? 319 1. Strongly interested 555 2. Somewhat interested 274 3. Not so much interested 56 4. Definitely not interested 2 9. MD
VAR 17 FEELING OF CANDIDATE 8 Loc 30 width 1 MD=9 Q.8. How did you feel about the candidates who ran in your local district? Did you feel that they were honorable or good enough to be elected as a congressman? 94 1. Strongly honorable 556 2. Somewhat honorable 508 3. Not so much honorable 33 4. Not honorable at all/Disqualified as a candidate 15 9. MD
VAR 18 VOTE/ABSTAIN 9 Loc 31 width 1 MD=9 Q.9. Did you manage to vote in the election? 1035 1. Voted 168 5. Abstained 3 9. MD
VAR 19 TIME CAND. SELECTION 10 Loc 32 width 1 MD=0 Q.10. (VOTED:) When did you select the candidate you voted for? 192 1. At the election day 256 2. 2-3 days before the election day 145 3. 4-7 days before the election day 153 4. 1-2 weeks before the election day 294 5. More than 2 weeks before the election day 166 0. INAP
VAR 20 REASON FOR VOTE 11 Loc 33 width 1 MD=0 Q.11. (VOTED:) Were there any reason to select the candidate you voted for? In that case, which item was most seriously considered? 299 1. Candidate's party 262 2. Election commitment of the candidate 329 3. Candidate's competence 31 4. Personal relationship to candidate 38 5. Prompt of others 75 6. No special reason 172 0. INAP
VAR 21 FEELING ON PARTICIP 12 Loc 34 width 1 MD=0 Q.12. (VOTED:) How was your feeling, when you went to the local election booth? 698 1. Pleased/satisfied 328 5. No special feeling 180 0. INAP
VAR 22 CANDIDATE COMPETENCE 13 Loc 35 width 1 MD=0 Q.13. (COMPETENCE MOST IMPORTANT IN Q.11:) Which item was regarded as the most important element for candidate competence? 33 1. Intelligence 173 2. Experience 4 3. Wealth 1 4. Social/family ties 17 5. Political/moral clearness 132 6. Reliability 58 7. Honesty 18 8. Modesty 37 9. Good impression 733 0. INAP
VAR 23 PROMPT FACTOR 14 Loc 36 width 1 MD=0 Q.14. (VOTED:) What prompted you most in candidate choice? 245 1. Daily talk with family members 66 2. Talk with friends 171 3. Talk with neighbors 44 4. Talk with work mates 28 5. Party meetings 96 6. Candidate speeches/debates 118 7. Mass media 238 8. Various political advertisement 200 0. INAP
VAR 24 PARTY VOTED FOR 15 Loc 37 width 1 MD=0 Q.15. (VOTED:) Which party's candidate did you vote for? 388 1. Democratic Liberal Party 334 2. Democratic Party 147 3. Unification National Party 6 4. New Government Party 23 5. Peoples' Party 92 6. Independents 4 7. Others 212 0. INAP
VAR 25 MOTIVE PARTY CHOICE 16 Loc 38 width 1 MD=0 Q.16. (VOTED:) What was the most crucial motive in selecting a party or candidate? 320 1. For political stability 143 2. For strategic reason 182 3. For political change 84 4. For progressive politics 112 5. For continuous democratization 131 6. Party was not important factor at all 9 7. Others 225 0. INAP
VAR 26 WHY ABSTAINED 17 Loc 39 width 1 MD=0 Q.17. (ABSTAINED:) Is there any reason why you did not vote? 10 1. My vote had not any influence on election result 13 2. I had not any special interest in election result 17 3. I did not know much about candidate and party 36 4. People like me have nothing to do with politics 25 5. There was no candidate I liked 79 6. Personal reasons 1026 0. INAP
VAR 27 1987 PRESIDENT VOTE 18 Loc 40 width 1 MD=9 Q.18. How about the 1987 presidential election? Which candidate did you cast your vote for? 410 1. Roh Tae Woo 224 2. Kim Young Sam 237 3. Kim Dae Jung 62 4. Kim Jong Pil 36 5. Others 80 6. Abstained 111 7. Not eligible to vote 46 9. MD
VAR 28 NATIONAL PROBLEM, 1 19 Loc 41 width 2 MD=99 Q.19. How do you evaluate the national situation in general? Make a choice among the following items you think as the most serious problem. Q.19(1). First item 88 01. Education 48 02. Ecology/Environment 676 03. Economy 134 04. Domestic Politics 55 05. Crime 10 06. Juvenile delinquency 4 07. Sexual discrimination 23 08. Welfare policy for elders 18 09. South-North relationship/Unification 25 10. Regional anti-sentiment 20 11. Unbalanced wealth distribution 90 12. Open market pressure 15 99. MD
VAR 29 NATIONAL PROBLEM, 2 19 Loc 43 width 2 MD=99 Q.19(2). Second item <See Q.19 for complete question text> 68 01. Education 80 02. Ecology/Environment 183 03. Economy 226 04. Domestic Politics 134 05. Crime 37 06. Juvenile delinquency 17 07. Sexual discrimination 37 08. Welfare policy for elders 52 09. South-North relationship/Unification 87 10. Regional anti-sentiment 115 11. Unbalanced wealth distribution 130 12. Open market pressure 1 13. Others 39 99. MD
VAR 30 ELECTION ISSUE 20 Loc 45 width 2 MD=99 Q.20. Which of the following was thought as the most important issue in the election? Choose one item. 43 01. Political funds 903 02. Economic matters 30 03. Delay in launching local government 8 04. 6.29 Declaration 66 05. Party fusion among government and opposition parties 9 06. Corruption of the government 21 07. Manipulation politics 30 08. Money politics 6 09. Others 90 99. MD
VAR 31 HOUSEHOLD ECONOMY 21 Loc 47 width 1 MD=9 Q.21. How do you feel about the present economic situation compared to the situation 3-4 years ago? Choose an appropriate item. It became ... 33 1. Much better 251 2. Somewhat better 638 3. Same all the time 190 4. Somewhat worse 87 5. Much worse 7 9. MD
VAR 32 PARTY FUSION 22 Loc 48 width 1 MD=9 Q.22. How do you estimate the party fusion of the then government party, Democratic Justice Party, and the two then opposition parties, Kim Young Sam's party and Kim Jong Pil's Party? Do you think it was well-done or not well-done, when we think of future Korean politics? 34 1. Extremely well-done 169 2. Moderately well-done 419 3. Moderately not well-done 250 4. Extremely not well-done 321 8. DK 13 9. MD
VAR 33 CLOSEST PARTY 23 Loc 49 width 1 MD=9 Q.23. Which party do you think you stand closest to? If there is no party you feel close to, just give the name of the party you feel relatively closer to than others. 466 1. Democratic Liberal Party 432 2. Democratic Party 175 3. Unification National Party 36 4. New Government Party 47 5. People's Party 50 9. MD
VAR 34 WHY CLOSE TO PARTY 24 Loc 50 width 1 MD=9 Q.24. Why do you think you feel closest to the party you named? Choose one item regarded as the most appropriate reason. 189 1. Economic stability 240 2. Political stability 236 3. Democratization 122 4. Clean politics 86 5. Fresh politics 33 6. Balanced distribution 170 7. Regional prosperity 30 8. Credibility and competence 100 9. MD
VAR 35 ASSESSMENT OF GOVT 25 Loc 51 width 1 MD=9 Q.25. How well do you think the government takes care of politics? 11 1. Very well 315 2. Moderately well 680 3. Moderately poorly 182 4. Very poorly 18 9. MD
VAR 36 POLITICAL EFFICACY, 1 26 Loc 52 width 1 MD=9 Q.26. How much do you agree with the following statement: "People like me do not have any say about the politics"? 94 1. Completely agreed 455 2. Somewhat agreed 443 3. Somewhat disagreed 199 4. Completely disagreed 15 9. MD
VAR 37 POLITICAL EFFICACY, 2 27 Loc 53 width 1 MD=9 Q.27. How meaningful do you think your ballot is in election? 657 1. Very meaningful 444 2. Slightly meaningful 94 3. Slightly unmeaningful 2 4. Very unmeaningful 9 9. MD
VAR 38 ASSESS.OF POLITICIANS 28 Loc 54 width 1 MD=9 Q.28. How well do you think the politicians take care of politics? 13 1. Very well 257 2. Moderately well 733 3. Moderately poorly 190 4. Very poorly 13 9. MD
VAR 39 ASSESS.OF ASSM.MEMBR 29 Loc 55 width 1 MD=9 Q.29. How well do you think the assembly members take care of politics? 22 1. Very well 288 2. Moderately well 483 3. Moderately poorly 145 4. Very poorly 263 8. DK 5 9. MD
VAR 40 ASSESS. OF POLITICS 30 Loc 56 width 1 MD=9 Q.30. How about politics in general? Do you think Korean politics is democratic or undemocratic? 34 1. Very democratic 642 2. Somewhat democratic 438 3. Somewhat undemocratic 64 4. Very undemocratic 28 9. MD
VAR 41 PARTY ORIENTATION 31 Loc 57 width 1 MD=9 Q.31. We sometimes classify people in terms of "government-party oriented" or "opposition-party oriented". How about you? Are you regarded as the former or the latter? 274 1. Government party oriented 518 3. Middle of the road 403 5. Opposition party oriented 11 9. MD
VAR 42 ELECTORAL FAIRNESS 32 Loc 58 width 1 MD=9 Q.32. In comparison to the previous general election, how do you estimate this year's election? Was it fair or unfair for all the parties? 66 1. Very fair 757 2. Somewhat fair 322 3. Somewhat unfair 44 4. Very unfair 17 9. MD
VAR 43 REASON FOR UNFAIRNESS 33 Loc 59 width 1 MD=0 Q.33. (UNFAIR:) Why do you think the election was unfair? Which item listed below could be the most plausible reason for your assessment? 191 1. Illegal election campaign of candidates/parties 64 2. Illegality of voters, i.e., demand of money, etc. 39 3. Electoral intervenience of governmental branches 27 4. Partial election coverage of mass media 35 5. Unfair election management 54 6. Passive measure of judiciary and police against illegal cases 796 0. INAP
VAR 44 RECEIVING MONEY 34 Loc 60 width 1 Q.34. Have you ever experienced one of the following illegal election campaigns? Please answer to all items. Q.34(1). Experience of taking money offered by candidates 33 1. Yes 1173 5. No
VAR 45 RECEIVE OFFERING 34 Loc 61 width 1 Q.34(2). Experience of receiving candidates' offering <See Q.34 for complete question text> 48 1. Yes 1158 5. No
VAR 46 EATING FOOD 34 Loc 62 width 1 Q.34(3). Experience of eating food offered by candidates <See Q.34 for complete question text> 136 1. Yes 1070 5. No
VAR 47 GROUP TOUR 34 Loc 63 width 1 Q.34(4). Experience of group-tour offered by candidates <See Q.34 for complete question text> 4 1. Yes 1202 5. No
VAR 48 FUTURE REWARD 34 Loc 64 width 1 Q.34(5). Experience of candidates' promise of economic/material reward <See Q.34 for complete question text> 7 1. Yes 1199 5. No
VAR 49 PUBLIC MOBILIZING 34 Loc 65 width 1 Q.34(6). Experience of mobilizing central or local government organization <See Q.34 for complete question text> 79 1. Yes 1127 5. No
VAR 50 PRESSURE AT WORK 34 Loc 66 width 1 Q.34(7). Influence of senior staff at work <See Q.34 for complete question text> 28 1. Yes 1178 5. No
VAR 51 WHY RECEIVED BID 35 Loc 67 width 1 MD=9 Q.35. (EXPERIENCE OF RECEIVING BID:) Is there any special reason why you received offerings? 4 1. Because of money 18 2. Because the candidate I supported offered me 50 3. Because it was believed that there was no meaning 17 4. Because the candidate insisted on it 30 5. Because I did not know the disguised meaning 66 6. Because I could not say "No" 1021 9. MD
VAR 52 IMPACT OF ILLEGALITY 36 Loc 68 width 1 MD=0 Q.36. (EXPERIENCE OF RECEIVING BID:) Do you think the fact that you received something from the candidate made a crucial influence on your voting decision in your case? Choose an appropriate item below. 11 1. I cast the ballot to the candidate from whom I received offering 154 2. It did not play any important role 13 3. I cast the ballot to other candidate 6 4. I was so unpleased that I gave up to vote 5 5. I indicated the case to local authority 1017 0. INAP
VAR 53 URGENT MEASURE 37 Loc 69 width 1 MD=9 Q.37. Which item do you think is necessary for fair and clean election? 475 1. Respect for law of canvassers 321 2. Refusal to illegal campaign of the voters 136 3. Taking preventive measures and punishing illegal activities severely 73 4. More active role of the National Election Management Bureau 160 5. Vigilant surveillance of society members 41 9. MD
VAR 54 COVERAGE: TV 38 Loc 70 width 1 Q.38. Have you ever read/listened to any kind of public campaign program/article/publication on TV/Radio or in newspaper/magazine/poster/government information leaflet for clean election campaign run by the National Election Management Bureau? Q.38(1). Coverage: TV 1045 1. Yes 161 5. No
VAR 55 COVERAGE: RADIO 38 Loc 71 width 1 Q.38(2). Coverage: Radio <See Q.38 for complete question text> 372 1. Yes 834 5. No
VAR 56 COVERAGE: NEWSPAPER 38 Loc 72 width 1 Q.38(3). Coverage: Newspaper <See Q.38 for complete question text> 677 1. Yes 529 5. No
VAR 57 COVERAGE: MAGAZINE 38 Loc 73 width 1 Q.38(4). Coverage: Magazine <See Q.38 for complete question text> 134 1. Yes 1072 5. No
VAR 58 COVERAGE: POSTER 38 Loc 74 width 1 Q.38(5). Coverage: Poster <See Q.38 for complete question text> 625 1. Yes 581 5. No
VAR 59 COVERAGE: LEAFLET 38 Loc 75 width 1 Q.38(6). Coverage: Government Information Leaflet <See Q.38 for complete question text> 572 1. Yes 634 5. No
VAR 60 CAMPGN EFFECTIVENESS 39 Loc 76 width 1 MD=9 Q.39. How do you estimate the role of the National Election Bureau for fortifying fairness of election campaign? Do you think it was effective, moderately effective, moderately ineffective, or very ineffective? 147 1. Very effective 675 2. Moderately effective 334 3. Moderately ineffective 25 4. Very ineffective 25 9. MD
VAR 61 FAIR-PLAY SPIRIT 40 Loc 77 width 1 MD=9 Q.40. What do you think the best way for "fair-play spirit" in Korean election politics is? 190 1. More active public information service of the National Election Management Bureau 126 2. Enlightenment through school education 383 3. Active guidance of mass media 474 4. Social movement of citizens 33 9. MD
VAR 62 NEMB'S ROLE 41 Loc 78 width 1 MD=9 Q.41. How well or fairly do you think the National Election Management Bureau executed its role during election campaign? 72 1. Absolutely well/fairly 799 2. Moderately well/fairly 265 3. Moderately not well/fairly 31 4. Absolutely not well/fairly 39 9. MD
VAR 63 NEMB'S INFLUENCE 42 Loc 79 width 1 MD=9 Q.42. How do you estimate influence of the NEMB? The influence or jurisdiction of the NEMB should be ... 850 1. Expanded 258 3. Just same as now 59 5. Reduced 39 9. MD
VAR 64 PROBLEM OF NEMB 43 Loc 80 width 1 MD=9 Q.43. Which item of the followings do you think is the most urgent thing to be done by NEMB? 209 1. Impartial election management 413 2. Information service for right perception of suffrage right/meaning of election in democracy 190 3. Activity for preventing violation of election law 184 4. Strict regulation and indictment against election crime 172 5. Improvement of election law 38 9. MD
VAR 65 AGE 44 Loc 81 width 2 MD=99 Q.44. Age 20. 20 years . . 90. 90 years 14 99. MD Kod: 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Frek: 12 25 25 44 26 28 34 44 30 36 55 39 42 40 Kod: 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Frek: 42 37 33 27 25 15 28 12 20 21 19 31 15 18 Kod: 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 Frek: 28 20 27 20 12 16 18 22 16 14 15 9 16 7 Kod: 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 Frek: 10 9 13 10 6 6 14 2 12 6 6 4 3 4 Kod: 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 84 87 89 90 99 Frek: 4 5 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 14
VAR 66 GENDER 45 Loc 83 width 1 Q.45. Gender 601 1. Man 605 2. Woman
VAR 67 EDUCATION 46 Loc 84 width 1 MD=9 Q.46. To what level/how long have you been educated? 202 1. Primary school (less than 6 years) 162 2. Middle school (7-9 years) 487 3. High school (10-12) 292 4. University (more than 13 years) 63 9. MD
VAR 68 RICH OR POOR 47 Loc 85 width 1 MD=9 Q.47. Do you think of yourself that you are "very rich", "moderately rich", "neither rich nor poor", "moderately poor", or "very poor"? 1 1. Very rich 53 2. Moderately rich 831 3. Neither rich nor poor 273 4. Moderately poor 41 5. Very poor 7 9. MD
VAR 69 OWN INCOME 48 Loc 86 width 1 MD=9 Q.48. How much is your monthly income? Q.48(1). Own income: 1 SEK = Apprx. 100 Won 191 1. Under 200.000 Won 117 2. 200.000 - 390.000 156 3. 400.000 - 590.000 210 4. 600.000 - 890.000 99 5. 900.000 - 1.190.000 34 6. 1.200.000 - 1.490.000 15 7. 1.500.000 - 1.990.000 20 8. Over 2.000.000 Won 364 9. MD
VAR 70 HOUSEHOLD INCOME 48 Loc 87 width 1 MD=9 Q.48(2). Whole household income: <See Q.48 for complete question text> 1 SEK = Apprx. 100 Won 139 1. Under 400.000 Won 264 2. 400.000 - 790.000 321 3. 800.000 - 1.190.000 162 4. 1.200.000 - 1.590.000 65 5. 1.600.000 - 1.990.000 40 6. 2.000.000 - 2.990.000 8 7. 3.000.000 - 3.990.000 13 8. Over 4.000.000 Won 194 9. MD
VAR 71 HOUSEHOLD SIZE 49 Loc 88 width 2 MD=99 Q.49. How many family members are living together with you? 25 01. 1 person 107 02. 2 persons 203 03. 3 persons 393 04. 4 persons 271 05. 5 persons 114 06. 6 persons 56 07. 7 persons 15 08. 8 persons 12 09. 9 persons 10 99. MD
VAR 72 HOUSING 50 Loc 90 width 1 MD=9 Q.50. Do you own or rent the house you are living in? 750 1. Live in self-owned house 79 2. Live in a rented house now, but possess an own house in another place 354 3. Live in a rented house, and have no own house 23 9. MD
VAR 73 OCCUPATION 51 Loc 91 width 2 MD=99 Q.51. What is your present occupation? Describe concretely. 1 11. Doctor 6 12. Pharmacist/Nurses 1 13. Lawyer/Judge/Attorney 8 14. Professor/Researcher 33 15. Teacher/Private school teacher 2 16. Employee in mass media 36 17. Clergyman 7 18. Artist 12 19. High ranked public official 18 22. Middle ranked public official 1 23. Career military officer (higher than major) 3 24. Career military officer (lower than major) 7 25. Lowly ranked public officer 7 26. Temporary employed 5 31. Employer/high ranked manager 29 32. Middle ranked manager 113 33. Clerical workers 10 34. Owner of small/medium sized firm 77 41. Small shop owner 21 42. Restaurant/Hotel/Laundry owner 5 43. House broker 13 44. Shop clerk 11 45. Barber/Cosmetician/Cook 7 46. Peddler/Street seller 4 47. Maid/Dairy product deliverer 9 51. Supervisor 15 52. Skilled worker/Craftsman 71 53. Industry workers 25 54. Driver/Heavy equipment operator 29 55. Simple laborer/Odd-jobber 6 56. Home worker 9 61. Rich farmer/Large farm owner 30 62. Upper-middle farmer 50 63. Lower-middle farmer 46 64. Poor farmer/Sharecropper 1 65. Fisherman/Crewman 8 66. Dairy worker/Dairy producer 53 71. Student 281 72. Housewife 86 73. Jobless 8 74. Veteran/Retired/Pensioner 7 75. Military service in duty 17 76. Others 18 99. MD
VAR 74 HOMETOWN 52 Loc 93 width 1 MD=9 Q.52. Where are you originally from? (=Where is your grandfather's hometown?) 131 1. Seoul 140 2. Kyongki 67 3. Kangwon 202 4. Choongchong 263 5. Cholla 375 6. Kyongsang 2 7. Cheju 13 8. One of the five North Korean provinces 13 9. MD
VAR 75 URBAN-RURAL Loc 94 width 1 MD=9 City type: 597 1. Large city 317 2. Medium city 284 3. Small city 8 9. MD
VAR 76 HOUSE Loc 95 width 2 MD=99 House type: 21 01. Luxurious house 8 02. Luxurious villa 44 03. Luxurious apartment 370 04. Populace house 171 05. Tenement-house 198 06. Populace apartment 111 07. Building in shopping area 47 08. Illegal shack 231 09. Small house in farming area 5 99. MD
VAR 77 INTERVIEW METHOD Loc 97 width 1 MD=9 Interview method: 514 1. Direct oral interview 561 2. Filled out by respondent 125 3. Both alternatives 6 9. MD
VAR 78 RESPONDENT TYPE Loc 98 width 1 MD=9 Respondent type: 605 1. Respondent drawn by scheme 287 2. First alternative respondent 291 3. Second alternative respondent 23 9. MD